Study Guide 5

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radiated1
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9169
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Study Guide 5
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2010-03-04 21:49:48
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CT IV Procedures and Contrast Agents
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CT IV Procedures and Contrast Agents
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  1. Which of the following is a result of injecting a hypertonic solution into the vascular space?
    a. there is a net movement of water into the vascular space
    b. there is a net movement of contrast media out of the vascular space
    c. there is a net movement of water out of the vascular space
    d. there is nothing noteworthy about injecting a hypertonic solution into the vascular space
    a
  2. Which of the following is a common patient reaction to IV contrast media?
    1. warmth at the injection site
    2. headache
    3. nausea
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    d
  3. Low osmolar contrast media:
    a. typically has the same concentration of particles as the blood
    b. typically has a higher concentration of particles compared to blood
    c. tends to cause more adverse reactions than high osmolar contrast media
    d. is never used in CT
    b
  4. Which of the following is TRUE regarding barium sulfate solutions used in CT?
    a. they are less concentrated than those used in conventional radiography
    b. they are the same as those used in conventional radiography
    c. they are in no way related to those used in conventional radiography
    d. they are more concentrated than those used in conventional radiogrpahy
    a
  5. Barium sulfate oral contrast media would be selected instead of iodinated oral contrast media because:
    1. it passes through the GI tract more quickly
    2. the trauma patient may have a perforated bowel
    3. the contrast media stays more dense in the distal GI tract
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 3 only
    d
  6. Which of the following may help to reduce adverse reactions resulting from the administration of IV contrast media?
    1. use high osmolar contrast media
    2. administer an antihistamine prior to the IV contrast injeciton
    3. increase the rate of injection
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    b
  7. Which of the following oral contrast agents is better for opacifying the distal small intestine?
    1. an ionic iodinated contrast agent
    2. a non-ionic iodinated contrast agent
    3. barium sulfate
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    c
  8. Iodinated IV contrast agents perfuse normal:
    a. liver tissue
    b. brain tissue
    c. thecal sac
    d. lymph nodes
    a
  9. Which of the following is NOT a typical adverse reaction to oral contrast media used in CT?
    a. diarrhea
    b. abdominal cramping
    c. flatulence
    d. hives
    d
  10. A delay of about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injection should be used for a helical scan of the neck.
    a. 20
    b. 35
    c. 50
    d. 75
    b
  11. If there is doubt regarding the sterility of the contrast media, the contrast media must be:
    a. shaken
    b. diluted
    c. heated
    d. discarded
    d
  12. The most common catheter size used in CT is _____ guage.
    a. 12 to 14
    b. 15 to 17
    c. 18 to 22
    d. 23 to 25
    c
  13. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's:
    a. atomic weight
    b. thickness
    c. tempature
    d. injection rate
    b
  14. The viscosity of IV contrast media can be reduced by:
    a. shaking
    b. stirring
    c. aerating
    d. heating
    d
  15. Why is the cephalic vein a less desirable site for injection then the basilic vein?
    a. it is usually a very small vwin with poor blood flow
    b. the blood must transverse the vessels in the head before reaching the heart
    c. it is a deep vein and not easily catheterized
    d. flow may be impeded as the patient's arms are raised
    d
  16. A defferecne in density of _____ HU between the aorta and the inferior vena cava would indicated the non-equilibrium phase of enhancement.
    a. 43
    b. 35
    c. 25
    d. 8
    c
  17. There is a substantial enhancement of the liver compared to tumors during the _____ phase, but during the _____ phase, there is the possibility of tumor enhancement, which may make hepatic turmors isodense with liver tissue.
    a. bolus, equilibrium
    b. non-equilibrium, equilibrium
    c. non-equilibrium, bolus
    d. equilibrium, non-equilibrium
    b
  18. IV contrast agents used in CT increase the attenuation of the x-ray beam due to the concentration of _____ in the agent.
    a. iodine
    b. glucose
    c. meglumine
    d. barium
    a
  19. The definition of osmolality is the _____ the contrast agent solution.
    a. thickness of
    b. measure of dissociation of
    c. concentration of molecular particles in
    d. rate of injection of
    c
  20. The osmolality of plasma is _____ mOsm/kg.
    a. 175
    b. 235
    c. 285
    d. 325
    c
  21. The portal venous phase occurs about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injeciton.
    a. 20 to 30
    b. 40 to 60
    c. 60 to 90
    d. 90 to 120
    c
  22. The hepatic arterial phase occurs about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injection.
    a. 60 to 80
    b. 40 to 60
    c. 20 to 40
    d. 0 to 20
    c
  23. A delay of about _____ seconds after the start of the IV contrast injection should be used for a helical scan of the chest.
    a. 45
    b. 35
    c. 25
    d. 15
    c
  24. Which of the following is a typical scan delay following the start of the injection for helical CT examinations of the pancreas?
    a. 50 to 60 seconds
    b. 70 to 80 seconds
    c. 80 to 90 seconds
    d. 2 to 3 minutes
    a
  25. Exams to rule out _____ would indicate the use of IV contrast media in the chest.
    1. lymphoma
    2. hilar mass
    3. aortic dissection
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    d
  26. To best visualize the stomach wall, which of the following should the patient drink last?
    1. iodinated oral contrast media
    2. water
    3. barium sulfate oral contrast
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    b
  27. How long does it take to inject 150ml of contrast media with an injection rate of 2 ml/sec.?
    a. 50 seconds
    b. 75 seconds
    c. 1 minute
    d. 2.5 minutes
    b
  28. The heating unit on a power injection is for _____ of the contrast agent.
    a. increasing the iodine concentration
    b. decreasing the viscosity
    c. increasing the density
    d. decreasing the osmolality
    b
  29. What should be done if extravastion is noticed at the injection site?
    a. apply ice during the injection
    b. stop the injection immediately
    c. slap the area
    d. apply heat during the injection
    b
  30. Which of the following characteristics of an IV contrast agent affects patient tolerance?
    1. concentration of iodine
    2. osmolality
    3. viscosity
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    d
  31. Which of the following is associated with a bi-phasic study of the liver?
    1. differentiation of lesions with arterial and portal venous blood supplies
    2. two injeciton rates used during the study
    3. two images for each slice position
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1 and 3
    d
  32. Contrast agents containing barium sulfate:
    1. enhance structures because they are absorbed into the blood stream
    2. enhance structures because ethey are absorbed through the small intestine
    3. pass through the GI tract unchanged
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1 and 2
    c
  33. An indication for IV contrast injeciton is to rule out:
    a. mastoiditis
    b. sinusitis
    c. meningioma
    d. Grave's disease
    c
  34. When a contrast agent is injected directly into the joint space it is known as _____ contrast.
    a. intravenous
    b. intrathecal
    c. oral
    d. intraarticular
    d
  35. Which of the following is TRUE regarding ionic contrast agents?
    1. ionic agents are charged ions
    2. ionic agents dissociate into ions in solution
    3. ionic agents ioniaze tissue they contact
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    b
  36. The contrast between a lesion and the surrounding tissue may _____ following the injection of contrast media.
    1. improve
    2. remain unchanged
    3 be degraded
    a. 1 only
    b. 2 only
    c. 3 only
    d. 1, 2 and 3
    d
  37. Which of the following is the order in which the pases of IV contrast enhancement occur?
    a. bolus, equilibrium, non-equilibrium
    b. equilibrium, non-equilibrium, bolus
    c. bolus, non-equiolibrim, equilibrium
    d. non-equilibrium, equilibrium, bolus
    c
  38. An injection rate of _____ cc/sec. will maintain a dense bolus of IV contract media for a CTA examination and will be tolerated by most patients.
    a. 8-10
    b. 7-8
    c. 4-5
    d. 1-2
    c
  39. A CT study of the brain to visualize MS plaques may be made more sensitive by using _____ delay after the contrast agent has been injected.
    a. no
    b. a 10 second
    c. a 60 second
    d. a 45 minute
    d
  40. What is the appropriate care to give to a patient with diabetes?
    1. if IV contract media is required, use LOCM
    2. if the patient is using Metformin, advise them to stop its use 48 hours before IV contrast is administered
    3. if the patinet is using Metformin, advise them to resume its use 48 hours after IV contrast administration oly after kidney function has been reassessed and determined to be normal
    a. 1 only
    b. 1 and 2
    c. 2 and 3
    d. 1 and 3
    d

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