humanities misc.txt

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humanities misc.txt
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  1. The author of A Doll�s House was ___________.
    Henrik Ibsen. Known for his uncanny ability to portray the inner-strength of the nineteenth-century woman, Ibsen�s other dramatic works include Ghosts and An Enemy of the People
  2. Author of Waiting for Godot, ______________ wrote his original scripts in French and them translated them himself into English.
    Samuel Beckett. Winner of the 1969 Nobel Prize for Literature, he also wrote the drama Endgame.
  3. French dramatist _____________ wrote The Romancers and The Woman of Samaria.
    Edmond Rostand. Most of Rostand�s plays are light, with no dark themes�-he reserved that for his poetry, like Cyrano de Bergerac. His story Chantecler was brought to the United States in 1910.
  4. The final three tragedies of Aeschylus are known as the ___________.
    Oresteia. The three plays are Agamemnon, The Cho�phoroe, and The Eumenides. Eugene O�Neill later rewrote the trilogy in American-style as Mourning Becomes Electra
  5. Greek playwright Aristophanes wrote _____________, where Athenian women boycott their spouses in order to end the war.
    Lysistrata. Aristophanes was both conservative and skeptical, writing satirical plays while denouncing the works of Socrates and the like. He wrote The Clouds as a satire about Socrates, and The Wasps, a satire about the Athenians being sue-crazy.
  6. French dramatist ____________ wrote the tragedies, Cinna, and Polyeucte.
    Pierre Corneille. A seventeenth-century writer, Corneille�s greatest work was Le Cid in 1637. However, a critical essay by Jean Chapelain called Corneille a plagiarist with poorly constructed work, and thereafter he stayed with more traditional pieces.
  7. In poetry, a ___________ unit is a set of two or three syllables of which only one is stressed.
    Metric. A poem's meter describes how it can be broken up by syllables and accents. The main types are anapestic meter, dactylic meter, iambic meter, and trochaic meter.
  8. This Canadian poet and novelist is best known for the 1984 book, The Handmaid�s Tale.
    Margaret Atwood is the correct answer. Margaret Atwood also wrote the poems Landcrab, Silent Song, and In the Secular Night, and the book Alias Grace, among many other publications. Dubbed �Medusa� by her critics, much of her work has a distinctive tongue-in-cheek style. Margaret Sanger was a twentieth-century pioneer in making contraception legal and available to women
  9. Identify the author of the poems Elegy Before Death, Thou art not lovelier than lilacs, The Suicide, and The Little Ghost.
    Edna St. Vincent Millay is the correct answer. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950) is known for her mastery of the sonnet, along with her lively tone. She won a Pullitzer Prize for her work Harp Weaver and Other Poems.
  10. �So smooth, so sweet, so silvery is thy voice�
  11. The opening line to Robert Herrick�s Upon Julia�s Voice deliberately uses certain pleasing consonant combinations, or ______________, to express the appeal of the subject�s voice.
    Euphony. Smooth sounding letters, including l, m, n, and r, are often used to express a soft, gentle tone. In contrast, letters that produce a harsh sound (cacophony) can help illustrate an unpleasant situation.
  12. A(n) ___________ is a stanza made up of three lines.
    • Tercet. Stanzas can also be couplets (two lines), quatrains (four lines), quintains or cinquains (five lines), or sestets (six lines). Adam Had �em.
    • The above�-Lines on the Antiquity of Microbes by Strickland Gillilan�-is one of the shortest examples of a(n) ___________ tha Couplet. Also known as a distich, a couplet is made up of two lines that match in length, in rhyme, or both.t forms a complete poem.
  13. Adam Had �em.
    • The above�-Lines on the Antiquity of Microbes by Strickland Gillilan�-is one of the shortest examples of a(n) ___________
    • Couplet. Also known as a distich, a couplet is made up of two lines that match in length, in rhyme, or both.t forms a complete poem.
  14. Though not a recognized poet during his life (1844-1889), ____________ was recognized as an esteemed poet after his death for such works as The Wreck of the Deutschland and The Caged Skylark.
    Gerard Manley Hopkins. Other poems by Hopkins include Heaven-Heaven, Pied Beauty, and God�s Grandeur.
  15. ____________ turned to poetry in search of a greater means of expression, after a scandal erupted over his novel Jude the Obscure regarding his openness about free sexual relations between the sexes.
    Thomas Hardy. A nineteenth-century English writer, he abandoned fiction writing altogether after Jude the Obscure and wrote only poetry�including A Study of Reading Habits, Church Going, and Toads. The majority of his poems revolve around the theme of man fighting against supernatural forces.
  16. A well-known American novelist, _____________ wrote The Scarlet Letter.
    Nathaniel Hawthorne. Most of his written work concerns evil and human morality, including The House of the Seven Gables, which deals with Puritanism.
  17. The 1949 Nobel Prize Winner for Literature was _______________. Most of his novels are set in Yoknapatawpha county.
    William Faulkner. A Southern American novelist, he generously used symbolism throughout his novels, the most well-known of which include The Sound and the Fury, and As I Lay Dying.
  18. The Irish writer _____________ wrote Ulysses, based largely on Homer�s Odyssey.
    James Joyce. Each chapter in Ulysses closely parallels one of Homer�s epics, although the novel has been reissued a number of times to correct somewhere near 5,000 mistakes. Joyce also published a short story collection called Dubliners and the book A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.
  19. A fan of stream of consciousness, ____________ wrote The Waves.
    Virginia Woolf. Along with writing from multiple consciousnesses, Woolf was also excellent at critical essays. Her finest works include The Common Reader and The Death of the Moth and Other Essays.
  20. A close confidant to Jean-Paul Satre, existentialist ____________�s most widely acclaimed work was The Second Sex.
    Simone de Beauvoir. A female French writer, her work stands out as excellently researched, mostly dealing with poor social conditions throughout the ages. She wrote All Men Are Mortal, The Mandarins, and The Blood of Others, and even edited Satre�s letters
  21. A Lesson Before Dying was written by _____________.
    Ernest Gaines. This book is about a young black man sentenced to death by electrocution for a crime he did not commit�-and how his lawyer helps him to come to grips with taking his final breath.
  22. Many of John Steinbeck�s novels take place in the _________ Valley
    Salinas. Having grown up in the area, Steinbeck chooses to describe familiar territory by situating his characters close to home.
  23. One Flew Over the Cuckoo�s Nest is written by ____________
    Ken Kesey. Both a comedy and a tragedy, this novel follows the lives of patients in a mental hospital, and serves as an allegory for preserving oneself versus the greater good of society.
  24. German philosopher ______________ wrote Being and Time.
    Martin Heidegger. Influenced by the work of Edmund Husserl and considered a founding father of existentialism, Heidegger ultimately rejected both associations. Instead, he focused simply on �being� and examining human moods and experiences. Heidegger�s work led the way for the modern study of hermeneutics.
  25. A student of Martin Heidegger, ____________ wrote Truth and Method and is considered by many to be the father of Hermeneutics.
    Hans-Georg Gadamer. Gadamer largely argued that it is impossible to be unbiased in anything, and even historical accounts are forever biased by our own experiences. As factual as a historical summary may be, the way we interpret it is still to compare with our own life experiences, which are not the same experiences shared by those who experienced the historical events firsthand.
  26. ____ _____ is known as the Father of Taoism.
    Lao Tzu. Sixth century B.C. philosopher Lao Tzu (or 'Old Sage') is credited with starting the philosophy of Taoism. Some scholars believe that he was a slightly older contemporary of Confucius.
  27. Philosopher ____________ published Phenomenology of Mind in 1807 and Philosophy of Right in 1821, among other works.
    Georg W.F. Hegel. According to the Hegelian dialectic, one thought (i.e. being) invariably leads to a thought of its antithesis (not being), and the two must come together to form an entirely new thought (becoming). This work affirmed logic�-specifically, the logic of language�-as the foundation of the world.
  28. German metaphysician ___________ began his string of successful philosophical publications with Critique of Pure Reason in 1781.
    Immanuel Kant. Kant believed that reality extended only so far as an individual�s personal degree of �knowing,� and it is impossible to �know� things that one cannot experience firsthand. Therefore, intangibles such as God, freedom, and immortality cannot be known or proven. After publishing Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone, he was ordered by the government to refrain from future writings on the topic of religion.
  29. �But human nature does not go backward, and we never return to the times of innocence and equality, when we have once departed from them.� This quote is attributed to which French philosopher? ____________
    Jean Jacques Rousseau. Rousseau caused considerable conflict over the years with his open expectation of the impending fall of humanity. He believed that humanity was inherently good, but once corrupted by civilization, there was no turning back.
  30. Who wrote: �I think, therefore I am.�
    Rene Descartes. Perhaps better known for his contributions to geometry than philosophy (the Cartesian plane is named after him), Descartes is actually considered the founder of modern rationalism.
  31. Two Treatises on Government, written by ____________, influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence.
    John Locke. In that same year (1690), Locke also published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding to outline the principles of empiricism.
  32. The ___________-______ is a dialogue between Prince Arjuna and Lord Krishna
    Bhagavad-Gita. Written in Sanskrit, the Bhagavad-Gita serves as a foundation for the Hindu religion. In the end, Lord Krishna reveals himself as the reincarnation of Vishnu (Lord of the Universe).
  33. Renowned French essayist ________________ published three collections of essays, and wrote such pieces as On Friendship.
    Michel Montaigne. Allowed only to speak Latin for the first seven years of his life, his oftentimes lively, humorous essays covered a broad range of topics.
  34. ______________ wrote Twelve Caesars, a biography of the lives of the Caesars.
    Suetonius. Born in 69 A.D., Suetonius served as the private secretary of Emperor Hadrian. He compiled much biographical information over his life, and fragments of his biographical work De viris illustribus have been discovered.
  35. Jean-Francois Millet, Eugene Delacroix, J.M.W. Turner, and William Blake were all artists of the _____________ movement.
    Romanticism. Covering the late eighteenth to early nineteenth centuries, the works of this period stressed the inherent goodness in humanity and shied away from earlier emphasis on reason in art.
  36. Henri Matisse, Raoul Dufy, and Andre Derain were all artists during the ___________ movement.
    Fauvism. Lasting for three short years (1905-1908), fauvism served as the foundation for much of subsequent twentieth-century art. Its work was full of vibrant colors and boldly distorted figures. Matisse was the sole member of the group who continued to incorporate fauvism in his work after 1908.
  37. El Greco, Jacopo Tintoretto, and Antoine Caron all developed works in the style of ____________.
    Mannerism. An Italian art form from 1520-1600, the mannerism movement sought to go against the strict proportionality of the High Renaissance by deliberately skewing scales and figures, with harsh lighting.
  38. The distribution of lightness and darkness in a painting is called
    Chiaroscuro. Meaning �light and dark� in Italian, the term originally referred to an early, obscure printing process. Antonio Correggio (1494-1534) and Caravaggio (1573-1610) were both well known for employing this technique in their works.
  39. Mannerism painter ___________ (1486�1551) designed Old Testament scenes and many sculptures for the Siena Cathedral.
    Domenico Beccafumi. Among his Siena sculptures are Nativity of the Virgin, Descent into Limbo, and St. Michael.
  40. Lasting from 1916 to 1922, ___________ originated from the disenchantment created by World War I.
    Dadaism. Employing absurdity and unpredictability, Dada works were largely collages. Major artists of the time included Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray
  41. Ellsworth Kelly, Barnett Newman, and Clifford Singer were all ____________ painters.
    Minimalist. Founded in the 1960s, Minimalism reduces objects to their barest forms, focusing on color and simplicity.
  42. Giovanni Panini, Jacques-Louis David, and Rudolf Ernst were all painters of the ______________ era.
    Neoclassicism. Largely thought to be the lead-in for Romanticism, Neoclassicism was characterized by the eighteenth-century regeneration in interest in Greek and Roman history, spurred by the discovery of Pompeii.
  43. ______________ (1748�1825) painted The Oath of the Horatii and Death of Socrates.
    Jacques-Louis David. Considered the starting point of modern art, this French artist showed a marked interest in antiquity and virtue in his works. Highly disciplined, his work lacks the emotion of other artists. He painted many French Revolutionary martyrs and Napoleon portraits.
  44. The highest horizontal slab on a Greek column is a(n) ___________.
    Abacus. Forming the top of the column�s capital, the abacus is a flat square stone. Below is a couple of pics to help you understand the different parts of a column:
  45. Traditional Japanese painting methods were developed during the ______ period (710�784).
    Nara. Statues and other figures of Buddha done in wood and bronze were very popular during this time, and began assuming enormous proportions during the eighth century.
  46. The Japanese hanging scroll known as a ___________ could be unrolled to display an illustrated narrative.
    Kakemono. Once unrolled, the scroll itself is known as an emakimono. A traditional form of Japanese painting, the scroll was usually silk, with Chinese ink.
  47. The Yamato-e form of painting was characteristic of the _____________ period (898�1185) in Japan.
    Fujiwara. The Yamato-e form focused on subjects with a Japanese, not Chinese, style, as previous periods had done. Tale of the Genji, the famous scroll by Lady Murasaki, was made in this time. Kanaoka was the most well-known artist of the Fujiwara period.
  48. The Edo Period in Japan introduced a new form of wood-block art known as _______-__.
    Ukiyo-e. Harunobu, Kiyonaga, Utamaro, Hokusai, and Hiroshige were all well-known ukiyo-e artists, a style initially appealing only to those of low social status with enough money to spend on art. Overtime, these pictures of the �fleeing� world gained international renown during the Edo Period (1615�1867).
  49. French artist ________ (1834�1917) created such pieces as Woman with Chrysanthemums and Absinthe.
    Edgar Degas. Both painter and sculptor, his work was a blend of classical art and impressionism. Though a perfectionist, his works are purposefully off-centered, with sections of certain subjects cut-off. Other works include Two Laundresses and Foyer of the Dance.
  50. A neo-Impressionist, _____________ (1859�1891) developed the pointillism, or divisionism, technique.
    Georges Seurat. Some of his greatest works include Un Dimanche � la Grande Jatte and Sunday Afternoon on The Island of La Gra.
  51. A highly decorated container for religious relics is known as a ______________.
    Reliquary. Richly adorned with gold, jewelry, and artistry, they largely hold items belonging to saints. Famous reliquaries include Peter Vischer�s Reliquary of St. Sebald, and Charles Wuorinen�s Reliquary for Igor Stravinsky.
  52. An opaque watercolor work is known as a(n) ____________.
    Gouache. This term can also refer to the process by which such an artwork is created. Opaque watercolor projects an added luminance not present in transparent watercolors.
  53. The Peaceable Kingdom was painted by ____________.
    Edward Hicks. A Quaker, the majority of Hicks� works were on signposts and carriages. He completed more than 100 versions of The Peaceable Kingdom.
  54. English painter _____________ was well-known for his landscape scenes, including View on the Stour (1819) and The Hay Wain (1821).
    John Constable. With his poetic approach towards his landscapes, Constable (1776�1837) received little acclaim during his life, but later greatly inspired such artists as Delacroix and Bonington. Other works include Salisbury Cathedral and Dedham Vale.
  55. English painter _____________ connected French and English landscape artists, rapidly painting watercolors like Coast of Picardy.
    Richard Bonington. Though he produced few works in his short life (1802�1828), his watercolors and lithographs are celebrated at the Louvre and other art museums.
  56. The golden age of Buddhist art in India was the _________ period.
    Gupta. Attention to detail because more important to artists, as reflected in bronze and stone statues from the time.
  57. A relief sculpture that is carved inwards instead of outwards is known as ___________.
    Intaglio. More frequent in jewelry than large-scale art, it is the opposite of relief sculpture.
  58. ______________ is the national anthem of France.
    The Marseillaise. Written during the French Revolution, it was given its name for first being sung by the soldiers of Marseilles when they entered Paris.
  59. _______________ wrote the song �This Land Is Your Land.�
    Woody Guthrie. A 1930s songwriter and folk singer, he also wrote �So Long, It�s Been Good to Know Yuh.� Most of his work is about the difficulties of living during the Great Depression.
  60. Expensive-looking artwork that is shoddily done is known as ___________.
    Kitsch. The term can also apply to furniture. Plaster reproductions of famous busts and cheap Mona Lisa imitations qualify as kitsch.
  61. A ____________ is a recurring melody associated with a certain person, place, or event, used in opera.
    Leitmotif. The term is derived from the German for �leading theme,� and is most common in Wagner�s works.
  62. Eugene Delacroix. Known for his dramatic imagery, the French romantic painter Delacroix (1798-1863) also created The Massacre of Chios (1824).
    • Thomas Gainsborough. Gainsborough (1727-1788) was one of the first great landscape artists of his time, and was recognized for painting every section of
    • his works himself—unusual in the art field of that period. Pictured here are The Blue Boy and The Honorable Mrs. Graham.
  63. Amphora. Though the Greeks originally used amphoras, or jars, solely for practical purposes, the practice of decorating them grew progressively more elaborate over the years. Eventually, wealthier citizens considered amphoras to be decorations, not wine holders.
  64. Claude Lorrain. Known for his brilliantly lit landscape pieces, Lorrain (1600-1682) also did Enchanted Castle and Rebecca’s Wedding.
  65. William H. Johnson. Originally from South Carolina, Johnson joined in forming the Harlem Renaissance movement after moving to New York City. He later moved to and settled in Paris in 1926.
    • Discobolos.
    • This is a famous Greek statue of a discus-thrower
    • Kouros.
    • A kouros is a statue of a standing nude youth that did not represent any one individual youth but the idea of youth. It was used as a Greek male funerary memorial sculpture.
    • The Greek statue below is the ______________, or thespearbearer:
    • Doryphorus
  66. Greenough. This sculpture of George Washington as a Roman attracted criticism and derision for depicting the president half-naked.
  67. Matthew Brady. Brady was a famous Civil War photographer who took over 3,500 pictures during the war.
    • Constantin Brancusi.
    • Romanian-born sculptor, whose work profoundly influenced modern concepts of form in sculpture, painting, and industrial design. He abandoned the use of live models early on, and adapted a simplified, streamlined style
  68. Henry Moore. Moore is known for his abstract sculptures with curved edges and massive forms.
    • Andrew Wyeth.
    • Most of Wyeth’s subjects are residents of the town of Cushing, Maine. Aside from Christina’s World, his collection of Helga portraits are also quite popular.
    • Gilbert Stuart.
    • Stuart’s (1755–1828) portrait, one of three commissioned at separate times, is immortalized on United States dollar bills.
    • Emanuel Leutze.
    • In this Revolutionary War painting, Washington and his men are portrayed launching a surprise attack upon the British. The portrait is historically inaccurate--the actual crossing was done in the dead of night, during a driving snowstorm.
    • James Ensor.
    • A Belgian painter, Ensor (1860–1949) was an original avant-garde artist. His piece Entry of Christ into Brussels caused him many troubles, considered too scandalous for showing. He also created The Temptation of St. Anthony.
    • Robert Delaunay.
    • Known for his serious attention to and focus on color, Delaunay (1885–1941) moved from being a neo-Impressionist to cubism, eventually developing the orphism movement.

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