Chapter 8 The Digestive System

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Chapter 8 The Digestive System
2011-06-23 15:34:43
Intro Medical Terminology

Chapter 8 The Digestive System
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  1. an/o
    means anus
  2. cec/o
    means cecum
  3. chol/e
    means bile, gall
  4. cholecyst/o
    means gallbladder
  5. col/o, colon/o
    means colon
  6. enter/o
    means small intestine
  7. esophag/o
    means esophagus
  8. gastr/o
    means stomach
  9. hepat/o
    means liver
  10. -lithiasis
    means presence of stones
  11. pancreat/o
    means pancreas
  12. -pepsia
    means digest, digestion
  13. proct/o
    means anus and rectum
  14. rect/o
    means rectum
  15. sigmoid/o
    means sigmoid colon
  16. achlorhydria
    the absence of hydrochloric acid from gastric secretions
  17. aerophagia
    the spasmodic swallowing of air followed by eructations
  18. amebic dysentery
    na intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica amoeba
  19. anastomosis
    a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
  20. anoplasty
    the surgical repair of the anus
  21. anorexia
    the lack or loss of appetite for food
  22. anoscopy
    the visual examination of the anal canal and lower rectum using a short speculum called an anoscope
  23. aphthous ulcers

    aka: canker sores
    recurrent blisterlike sores that break and form lesions on the soft tissues lining the mouth
  24. bilirubin
    pigment produced from the destruction of hemoglobin, is released by the liver in bile
  25. borborygmus
    the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
  26. botulism
    food poisoning that is characterized by paralysis and is often fatal, caused by clostridium botulinum
  27. bruxism
    involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth that usually occurs during sleep and is associated with tension or stress
  28. bulimia

    aka: bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensartory behavior such as self-induced vomiting or misue of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications
  29. cholecystalgia
    pain in the gallbladder
  30. cholecystectomy
    surgical removal of he gallbladder
  31. cholecystitis
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  32. choledocholithotomy
    an incision in the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
  33. cholelithiasis
    the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
  34. cholera
    an intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae
  35. cirrhosis
    a progressive degenerative disease of the liver characterized by the disturbance of the structure and function of the liver
  36. colitis
    an inflammation of the colon
  37. colonoscopy
    the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the colon from the rectum to the cecum
  38. colostomy
    the surgical creation of an opening between the colon and the body surface
  39. diverticulectomy
    the surgical removal of a diverticulum
  40. diverticulitis
    inflammation of one or more diverticulum
  41. duodenal ulcers
    peptic ulcers that occur in the upper part of the small intestine and are the most common form of peptic ulcer
  42. dyspepsia
    an impairment of digestion

    aka: indigestion
  43. dysphagia
    difficulty in swallowing
  44. emesis

    aka: vomiting
    means to expel the contents of the stomach through the esophagus and out the mouth
  45. emetic
    produces vomiting
  46. entertitis
    inflammation of the small intestines
  47. eructation
    the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
  48. esophageal reflux

    aka: gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD
    the upward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus
  49. esophageal varices
    enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
  50. esophagosplasty
    the surgical repair of the esophagus
  51. gastroduodenostomy
    the removal of the pylorus of the stomach and the establishment of an anastomosis between teh upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum
  52. gastroenteritis
    an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, especially the small intestine
  53. gastrorrhagia
    bleeding from the stmach
  54. gastrorrhea
    excessive flow of gastric secretions
  55. gastrorrhexis
    a rupture of the stoach
  56. gastrostomy
    the surgical creation of an atrificial opening into the stomach
  57. gingivectomy
    is the surgical removal of diseased gingival tissue
  58. gingivitis
    inflammation of teh gums, is the earliest stafe of periodontal disease
  59. hematemesis
    vomiting blood
  60. hemoccult

    aka: fecal occult blood test or FOBT
    a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools
  61. hemorrhoidectomy
    the surgical removal of hemorrhoids
  62. hepatitis
    an inflammation of the liver that is usually caused by a virus but may also be caused by toxic substances
  63. hepatomegaly
    the enlargement of the liver
  64. hepatorrhaphy
    means to suture the liver
  65. hepatorrhexis
    rupture of the liver
  66. hepatotomy
    a surgical incision into the liver
  67. herpes labialis

    aka: cold sores or fever blisters
    blisterlike sores caused by the herpes simplex virus that occur on the lips and adjacent tissue
  68. hiatal hernia
    a protrusionof part of the stomach through the esophageal sphincter in the diaphragm
  69. hyperemesis
    means excessive vomiting
  70. ileectomy
    the surgical removal of the ileum
  71. ileitis
    an inflammation of the ileum
  72. ileocecal
    controls the flow freom the ileum of the small intestine into the cecum of the large intestine
  73. ileostomy
    the surgical creation of an opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the abdominal wall
  74. ileus
    a temporary stoppage of intestinal peristalsis that may be accompanied by severe pain, abdominal distention, vomiting, absence of passge of stools, fever, and dehydration.
  75. inguinal hernia
    the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lowe abdominal wall or groin
  76. intussusception
    the telescoping of one part of the intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part
  77. jaundice

    aka: icterus
    a yellow discoloration of the skin and other tissues caused by grater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
  78. maxillofacial surgery
    is specialized surgery of the face and jaws to correct deformities, treat diseases, and repair injuries
  79. melena
    is the passage of black stools containing digested blood
  80. nasogastric intubation
    the placement of a tube through the nose and into the stomach
  81. orthodontist
    a dental specialist in the prevention or correction of abnormalities in the positioning of the teeth and related facial structures.
  82. periodontitis
    Inflammation of the tissue that surround and support the teeth

    aka: periodontal disease
  83. peristalsis
    the wave-like contractions that move food along the digestive tract.
  84. pica
    an eating disorder in which there is persistent eating of nonnutritional substances such as clay.
  85. proctoplasty
    the surgical repair of the rectum
  86. pyrosis

    aka: heartburn
    the burning sensation caused by the return of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus
  87. regurgitation
    the return of swallowed food into the mouth
  88. salmonella
    an intentinal bacterial infection caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella
  89. sigmoidoscopy
    visual examination of the interior of the entire rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the decending colon
  90. volvulus
    twisting of the intestine (bowel) on itself that causes an obstruction
  91. or/o
    means mouth

    begins preparation of food digestion
  92. pharyng/o
    means pharynx

    transports food from the mouth to the esophagus
  93. esophag/o
    means esophagus

    transports food from the pharynx to the stomach
  94. gastr/o
    means stomach

    breaks down food and mixes it with digestive juices
  95. enter/o
    means small intestines

    completes digestion and absorption of most nutrients
  96. col/o
    means large intestines

    absorbs excess water and prepares solid waste for elimination
  97. an/o, proct/o, rect/o
    means rectum and anus

    controls the excretion of solid waste
  98. hepat/o
    means liver

    secretes bile and enzymes to aid in the digestion of fats
  99. cholecyst/o
    means gallbladder

    stores bile and releases it to the small intestine as needed
  100. pancreat/o
    means pancreas

    secretes digestive juices and enzymes into small intestine as needed
  101. gingiv
    means gums
  102. itis
    means inflamamation
  103. halit
    means breath
  104. -osis
    means condition of
  105. reflux
    means a backward flow or return flow
  106. -rrhagia
    means bleeding
  107. -rrhea
    means abnormal flow
  108. -rrhexis
    means rupture
  109. pept
    means digestion
  110. -ic
    means pertaining to
  111. aer/o
    means air
  112. -occult
    means hidden or difficult to see
  113. -scopy
    means visual examination