Card Set Information
How do fungi reproduce?
asexually by forming spores
T/F Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles and nucleus
Are most fungi multicellular or unicellular?
Multicellular without specialization. Some are unicellular.
Are fungi heterotrophic or autotrophic?
What does heterotrophic mean?
They absorb food
What are two ways fungi are heterotrophic?
sabrobes-use dead organisms for food
parasites-use living organisms for food
Why were fungi at one time classified as plants?
Because they have cell walls
What kind of digestion do fungi use?
What is external digestion?
fungi shoots the enzymes into food and absorbs the food after it is digested
What is in the cell walls of fungi?
What is chiten?
A nitrogenous carbohydrate
How do fungi store their food?
glycogen (animal starch)
How are hyphae arranged in fungi?
They are compacted together to form solid structures
What are hyphae?
Chain of cells
What are septa?
Crosswalls between fungi cells
What is the type of hyphae with no crosswalls between the cells?
What two types of hyphae have crosswalls between their cells and what is the name of both of them?
Monokaryotic and Dikaryotic; Septate
What does karyo mean?
What is the type of hyphae with crosswalls and one nucleus in a cell?
What is the type of hyphae with crosswalls and two nuclei in a cell?
What are the mating types of dikaryotic hyphae and what do they allow it to do?
+ and -. Sexually reproduce
What is the entire body of a fungus?
What is the study of fungi?
What phylum does black red mold belong to?
What type of hyphae is on black bread mold?
How does black bread mold start growing?
A spore lands on the bread, shoots enzymes into the bread, then digests it
What are rhizoids?
The hyphae that penetrate and digest the food in saprobes
What are stolons?
Surface hyphae that look like white cotton
What are sporangiophores?
aerial hyphae that are involved in reproduction
What do sporangiospores do?
What color are sporangium in black bread mold?
What will black bread mold realize when they touch each other?
That food is scarce and they may die from lack of food
What type of sexual reproduction occurs in black bread mold and when does it occur?
conjugation, when food is scarce
T/F conjugation will only work if one black bread mold is + and one is -
What happens when black bread mold reproduce?
the nuclei join, a zygospore forms. The zygospore can remain dormant for months
What happens when a zygospore finds new food?
Meiosis occurs and a new black bread mold hyphae will grow
What is the scientific name for black bread mold?
What are fungi phyla based on?
the way they reproduce
What is an ascus?
A fingerlike sac with 8 ascopores in it; 4 are positive, 4 are negative
What is a nickname for ascus?
What is a nickname for Peziza?
Where do Peziza live?
T/F Peziza are saprobes
What kind of hyphae do Peziza have?
What are primary mycelium?
The original first parents
What kind of hyphae do Peziza have after the cells fuse?
What is a fruiting body?
A reproductive structure above ground that is a secondary mycelium
What is another name for a fruiting body?
What is the product of two different mating types join?
What are the steps of the Ascomycota life cycle?
1. before fertilization
How do spores escape from the fruiting body in Peziza?
The fruiting body dries up and the spores escape
T/F the parents die when the fruiting body dries up in Peziza
What do new spores do?
grow into a new fungus
What is the yeast cell wall made of?
What kind of environment do yeast live in?
a moist environment
What is the food of yeast?
mainly sugar of any other carb
What is an example, other than bread, of where yeast live?
On the ground. It attacks fruit as it falls of the tree.
When do yeast reproduce?
When there is a lot of food.
How do yeast reproduce?
Asexually by budding
T/F in budding the new cells are smaller than the original cells
What civilization knew about yeast and made beer?
What are the two kinds of yeast?
Brewers yeast-use ethyl alcohol and ferment with grain
Bakers yeast-yeast ferments sugar
What are the wastes for the yeast when it is fermented with sugar?
carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
What does yeast use in the formula for yeast fermenting with sugar?
What is this formula for? C
yeast fermenting sugar/carbs into alcohol
Where can yeast be bought?
In the refrigerated or baking section
How many ascospores does the ascus of a yeast have?
4 because they are unicellular
What organisms are in the Phylum Ascomycota?
Dutch Elm disease
Ergot of Rye
What are the two kinds of Blue-green molds?
T/F Aspergillus and penicillium are both saprobes
Where can Blue-green molds live?
What are conidiophores?
aerial hyphae in the blue-green molds
What are conidiospores?
spores at the end of conidiophores, color is blue-green
What carries canidiospores?
What products do blue-green molds help produce
blue cheese products ex. dressing, and hard cheeses
Where do morels live?
dead logs or leaves
What part of the Morel do we eat?
What is Dutch Elm disease and what does it do?
a plant parasite; destroys the tubes that carry water through the tree
What is Chesnut Blight and who were chesnuts eaten by?
plant parasite; Native Americans
What is Powdery mildew and how is it killed?
a plant parasite in gardens; fungicide-powder that kills fungus
What does Ergot of rye cause?
hallucinations because of a hallucinogenic chemical
What is a nickname for organisms in the Phylum Basidiomycota?
What do Basidiomycota have that produce spores?
What is the life cycle of a Basidiomycota?
T/F mushrooms are saprobes
What do mushrooms use for their food supply?
What is the fruiting body of a mushroom called?
What hyphae are the product of two primary monokaryotic hyphae fusing?
a secondary dikaryotic hyphae
What is the cap of a mushroom?
What is the stem of a mushroom?
Where do basidiospores form on mushrooms?
along the sides of the gills
What is a basidia?
A club shaped structure on which spores form
What is the scar tissue that forms when the edge pulls away from the stipe?
How is a puffball different from a mushroom?
It doesn't have gills or a stipe
T/F puffballs can cause severe allergic reactions
What does a stinkhorn smell like?
Why does the stinkhorn smell?
so flying insects will be attracted to it and carry its spores
Where does bracket/shelf fungi grow?
On the sides of trees
Are bracket/shelf fungi usually saprobes or parasites?
saprobes, but there are also parasitic types
What do bracket/shelf fungi feed off of?
What are smuts?
What do smuts affect?
oats and corn
What does oat smut do to the oats?
makes less fruit and the fruit is fungi encrusted
What does corn smut do to corn?
makes it white and cottony with black specks
What can smuts be killed by?
What organisms are the Phylum Basidiomycota?
What are rusts?
A plant parasite
What do rusts do to plants?
make red spots on the plants where the spores are
What is wheat rust controlled by?
T/F wheat rust has a complex life cycle
What are the spores that come out on wheat rust in the summer and what color are they?
uredospores-red summer spores
What color are the spores of wheat rust in the autumn and what are they called?
black winter spores-teliospores
What are teliospores?
black winter spores
What are red summer spores?
What do teliospores of wheat rust do over the winter?
stay dormant in the soil
In the spring what do teliospores of wheat rust do?
grow into basidiospores in the soil
What do the basidiospores of wheat rust do in the spring?
float up to 1,000s of miles and land on barberry bush leaves
What happens when the the basidiospores of wheat rust land on barberry bush leaves?
fungus grows and produces aeciospores, which affect baby wheat plants
What is the life cycle of a wheat rust?
1. Uredospores-wheat, summer
2. Teliospores-wheat, autumn/winter
3. Basidiospores-soil, spring
4. Aeciospores-barberry, spring
What is a nickname for fungi in the phylum Deuteromycota?
What makes Deuteromycota fungi different from other fungi?
no sexual stage
What are the three human diseases caused by fungus?
vaginal yeast infection
What do ringworm and athlete's foot affect?
What are haustoria?
hyphae that grow into food (living host) on parasitic fungi
What does athlete's foot need to grow?
A lot of moisture
Where does ringworm like to grow?
in creases and on the scalp
Why is ringworm called ringworm?
because the haustoria grows in a circle that looks like a ring
What is thrush?
a mouth infection
What does symbiotic mean?
two organisms living together
What is mutualism in symbiotic relationships?
both organisms benefit-mutualistic symbiotic relationships
What are the two symbiotic relationships?
What do lichens have a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with?
How do green algae/cyanobacteria help lichens?
the photosynthesize, which makes food for the lichen
How do fungus help lichens?
provide SA for absorption of water and minerals
Where do lichens live?
on the surfaces of rocks
Why can lichens grow on rocks?
Because they are self sufficient
What climate can lichens grow in, what is there nickname there, and why are they called that?
because reindeer eat them
What is a nickname for lichens and why are they called this?
because they are some of the first life forms to come back after a natural disaster
What do Mycorrhizas have symbiotic relationships with?
How do plant roots help the Mycorrhizas?
they provide food
How do plant roots help the Mycorrhizas?
provide SA for increased absorption of water and minerals