Chapter 26

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Chapter 26
2010-03-10 21:33:34

Kingdom Fungi
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  1. How do fungi reproduce?
    asexually by forming spores
  2. T/F Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles and nucleus
  3. Are most fungi multicellular or unicellular?
    Multicellular without specialization. Some are unicellular.
  4. Are fungi heterotrophic or autotrophic?
  5. What does heterotrophic mean?
    They absorb food
  6. What are two ways fungi are heterotrophic?
    • sabrobes-use dead organisms for food
    • parasites-use living organisms for food
  7. Why were fungi at one time classified as plants?
    Because they have cell walls
  8. What kind of digestion do fungi use?
    External digestion
  9. What is external digestion?
    fungi shoots the enzymes into food and absorbs the food after it is digested
  10. What is in the cell walls of fungi?
  11. What is chiten?
    A nitrogenous carbohydrate
  12. How do fungi store their food?
    glycogen (animal starch)
  13. How are hyphae arranged in fungi?
    They are compacted together to form solid structures
  14. What are hyphae?
    Chain of cells
  15. What are septa?
    Crosswalls between fungi cells
  16. What is the type of hyphae with no crosswalls between the cells?
  17. What two types of hyphae have crosswalls between their cells and what is the name of both of them?
    Monokaryotic and Dikaryotic; Septate
  18. What does karyo mean?
  19. What is the type of hyphae with crosswalls and one nucleus in a cell?
  20. What is the type of hyphae with crosswalls and two nuclei in a cell?
  21. What are the mating types of dikaryotic hyphae and what do they allow it to do?
    + and -. Sexually reproduce
  22. What is the entire body of a fungus?
  23. What is the study of fungi?
  24. What phylum does black red mold belong to?
    Phylum Zygomycota
  25. What type of hyphae is on black bread mold?
    coenocytic hyphae
  26. How does black bread mold start growing?
    A spore lands on the bread, shoots enzymes into the bread, then digests it
  27. What are rhizoids?
    The hyphae that penetrate and digest the food in saprobes
  28. What are stolons?
    Surface hyphae that look like white cotton
  29. What are sporangiophores?
    aerial hyphae that are involved in reproduction
  30. What do sporangiospores do?
    release spores
  31. What color are sporangium in black bread mold?
  32. What will black bread mold realize when they touch each other?
    That food is scarce and they may die from lack of food
  33. What type of sexual reproduction occurs in black bread mold and when does it occur?
    conjugation, when food is scarce
  34. T/F conjugation will only work if one black bread mold is + and one is -
  35. What happens when black bread mold reproduce?
    the nuclei join, a zygospore forms. The zygospore can remain dormant for months
  36. What happens when a zygospore finds new food?
    Meiosis occurs and a new black bread mold hyphae will grow
  37. What is the scientific name for black bread mold?
    Rhizopus stolonifer
  38. What are fungi phyla based on?
    the way they reproduce
  39. What is an ascus?
    A fingerlike sac with 8 ascopores in it; 4 are positive, 4 are negative
  40. What is a nickname for ascus?
    sac fungi
  41. What is a nickname for Peziza?
    cup fungus
  42. Where do Peziza live?
    on logs
  43. T/F Peziza are saprobes
  44. What kind of hyphae do Peziza have?
    monokaryotic septate
  45. What are primary mycelium?
    The original first parents
  46. What kind of hyphae do Peziza have after the cells fuse?
    dikaryotic hyphae
  47. What is a fruiting body?
    A reproductive structure above ground that is a secondary mycelium
  48. What is another name for a fruiting body?
  49. What is the product of two different mating types join?
    a zygote
  50. What are the steps of the Ascomycota life cycle?
    • 1. before fertilization
    • 2. zygote
    • 3. meiosis
    • 4. mitosis
  51. How do spores escape from the fruiting body in Peziza?
    The fruiting body dries up and the spores escape
  52. T/F the parents die when the fruiting body dries up in Peziza
  53. What do new spores do?
    grow into a new fungus
  54. What is the yeast cell wall made of?
  55. What kind of environment do yeast live in?
    a moist environment
  56. What is the food of yeast?
    mainly sugar of any other carb
  57. What is an example, other than bread, of where yeast live?
    On the ground. It attacks fruit as it falls of the tree.
  58. When do yeast reproduce?
    When there is a lot of food.
  59. How do yeast reproduce?
    Asexually by budding
  60. T/F in budding the new cells are smaller than the original cells
  61. What civilization knew about yeast and made beer?
  62. What are the two kinds of yeast?
    • Brewers yeast-use ethyl alcohol and ferment with grain
    • Bakers yeast-yeast ferments sugar
  63. What are the wastes for the yeast when it is fermented with sugar?
    carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
  64. What does yeast use in the formula for yeast fermenting with sugar?
  65. What is this formula for? C6H12O6->CO2+C2H5OH+ATP
    yeast fermenting sugar/carbs into alcohol
  66. Where can yeast be bought?
    In the refrigerated or baking section
  67. How many ascospores does the ascus of a yeast have?
    4 because they are unicellular
  68. What organisms are in the Phylum Ascomycota?
    • Peziza
    • Yeast
    • Blue-green molds
    • Morel
    • Dutch Elm disease
    • Chestnut blight
    • Powdery mildews
    • Ergot of Rye
  69. What are the two kinds of Blue-green molds?
    • Aspergillus
    • Penicillium
  70. T/F Aspergillus and penicillium are both saprobes
  71. Where can Blue-green molds live?
    wet leather
  72. What are conidiophores?
    aerial hyphae in the blue-green molds
  73. What are conidiospores?
    spores at the end of conidiophores, color is blue-green
  74. What carries canidiospores?
    the wind
  75. What products do blue-green molds help produce
    blue cheese products ex. dressing, and hard cheeses
  76. Where do morels live?
    dead logs or leaves
  77. What part of the Morel do we eat?
    the ascocarp
  78. What is Dutch Elm disease and what does it do?
    a plant parasite; destroys the tubes that carry water through the tree
  79. What is Chesnut Blight and who were chesnuts eaten by?
    plant parasite; Native Americans
  80. What is Powdery mildew and how is it killed?
    a plant parasite in gardens; fungicide-powder that kills fungus
  81. What does Ergot of rye cause?
    hallucinations because of a hallucinogenic chemical
  82. What is a nickname for organisms in the Phylum Basidiomycota?
    "club fungi"
  83. What do Basidiomycota have that produce spores?
  84. What is the life cycle of a Basidiomycota?
    • 2 parents
    • zygote
    • meiosis
    • 4 basidiospores
  85. T/F mushrooms are saprobes
  86. What do mushrooms use for their food supply?
  87. What is the fruiting body of a mushroom called?
  88. What hyphae are the product of two primary monokaryotic hyphae fusing?
    a secondary dikaryotic hyphae
  89. What is the cap of a mushroom?
  90. What is the stem of a mushroom?
  91. Where do basidiospores form on mushrooms?
    along the sides of the gills
  92. What is a basidia?
    A club shaped structure on which spores form
  93. What is the scar tissue that forms when the edge pulls away from the stipe?
  94. How is a puffball different from a mushroom?
    It doesn't have gills or a stipe
  95. T/F puffballs can cause severe allergic reactions
  96. What does a stinkhorn smell like?
    Rotting flesh
  97. Why does the stinkhorn smell?
    so flying insects will be attracted to it and carry its spores
  98. Where does bracket/shelf fungi grow?
    On the sides of trees
  99. Are bracket/shelf fungi usually saprobes or parasites?
    saprobes, but there are also parasitic types
  100. What do bracket/shelf fungi feed off of?
    dead trees
  101. What are smuts?
    plant parasites
  102. What do smuts affect?
    oats and corn
  103. What does oat smut do to the oats?
    makes less fruit and the fruit is fungi encrusted
  104. What does corn smut do to corn?
    makes it white and cottony with black specks
  105. What can smuts be killed by?
  106. What organisms are the Phylum Basidiomycota?
    • mushroom
    • puffball
    • stinkhorn
    • shelf/bracket fungi
    • smuts
    • rusts
  107. What are rusts?
    A plant parasite
  108. What do rusts do to plants?
    make red spots on the plants where the spores are
  109. What is wheat rust controlled by?
  110. T/F wheat rust has a complex life cycle
  111. What are the spores that come out on wheat rust in the summer and what color are they?
    uredospores-red summer spores
  112. What color are the spores of wheat rust in the autumn and what are they called?
    black winter spores-teliospores
  113. What are teliospores?
    black winter spores
  114. What are red summer spores?
  115. What do teliospores of wheat rust do over the winter?
    stay dormant in the soil
  116. In the spring what do teliospores of wheat rust do?
    grow into basidiospores in the soil
  117. What do the basidiospores of wheat rust do in the spring?
    float up to 1,000s of miles and land on barberry bush leaves
  118. What happens when the the basidiospores of wheat rust land on barberry bush leaves?
    fungus grows and produces aeciospores, which affect baby wheat plants
  119. What is the life cycle of a wheat rust?
    • 1. Uredospores-wheat, summer
    • 2. Teliospores-wheat, autumn/winter
    • 3. Basidiospores-soil, spring
    • 4. Aeciospores-barberry, spring
  120. What is a nickname for fungi in the phylum Deuteromycota?
    imperfecti fungi
  121. What makes Deuteromycota fungi different from other fungi?
    no sexual stage
  122. What are the three human diseases caused by fungus?
    • ringworm
    • athlete's foot
    • thrush
    • vaginal yeast infection
  123. What do ringworm and athlete's foot affect?
    the skin
  124. What are haustoria?
    hyphae that grow into food (living host) on parasitic fungi
  125. What does athlete's foot need to grow?
    A lot of moisture
  126. Where does ringworm like to grow?
    in creases and on the scalp
  127. Why is ringworm called ringworm?
    because the haustoria grows in a circle that looks like a ring
  128. What is thrush?
    a mouth infection
  129. What does symbiotic mean?
    two organisms living together
  130. What is mutualism in symbiotic relationships?
    both organisms benefit-mutualistic symbiotic relationships
  131. What are the two symbiotic relationships?
    • lichens
    • mycorrhizas
  132. What do lichens have a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with?
    • green algae/cyanobacteria
    • fungus
  133. How do green algae/cyanobacteria help lichens?
    the photosynthesize, which makes food for the lichen
  134. How do fungus help lichens?
    provide SA for absorption of water and minerals
  135. Where do lichens live?
    on the surfaces of rocks
  136. Why can lichens grow on rocks?
    Because they are self sufficient
  137. What climate can lichens grow in, what is there nickname there, and why are they called that?
    • tundra
    • reindeer moss
    • because reindeer eat them
  138. What is a nickname for lichens and why are they called this?
    • pioneer plants
    • because they are some of the first life forms to come back after a natural disaster
  139. What do Mycorrhizas have symbiotic relationships with?
    • plant roots
    • fungus
  140. How do plant roots help the Mycorrhizas?
    they provide food
  141. How do plant roots help the Mycorrhizas?
    provide SA for increased absorption of water and minerals