Humanities music.txt

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  1. Increasing loudness in a musical score is known as a(n) ___________.
    Crescendo. Generally, the term is used to refer to the loudest section, or climax, of a piece.
  2. ______________ is the national anthem of France.
    The Marseillaise. Written during the French Revolution, it was given its name for first being sung by the soldiers of Marseilles when they entered Paris.
  3. The lifestyle of artists is often stereotypically described as ______________.
    Bohemian. Less accepted of an idea today than in earlier times, the term describes a lifestyle giving preference to art over material goods, and money in general. Bohemians are generally thought of as unclean, unkempt, and somewhat immoral.
  4. A musical section within a larger work that has its own unique tempo is known as a(n) _____________.
    Movement. Each movement is recognized by its own number in the sequence of the piece. An undivided musical piece is one movement.
  5. The direction to perform a musical piece very softly is ______________.
    Pianissimo. The opposite of pianissimo is fortissimo, or playing a musical piece very loudly.
  6. _______________ wrote the song �This Land Is Your Land.�
    Woody Guthrie. A 1930s songwriter and folk singer, he also wrote �So Long, It�s Been Good to Know Yuh.� Most of his work is about the difficulties of living during the Great Depression.
  7. ______________ glass, created by an artisan in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, is worth substantial amounts of money today.
    Tiffany. Created by Louis Tiffany, the glass forms are of an art nouveau style, with iridescent colors. Another term for the work is favrile glass. The style has been extensively imitated over time.
  8. The American patriotic song "_________ _______ of the Republic" shares the same tune as John Brown�s Body.
    Battle Hymn. Julia Ward Howe wrote the song after visiting Union soldiers.
  9. A(n) ___________ sponsors a ballet, opera, or symphony.
    Impresario. The term can also apply to a producer of such works
  10. A ____________ is a recurring melody associated with a certain person, place, or event, used in opera.
    Leitmotif. The term is derived from the German for �leading theme,� and is most common in Wagner�s works.
  11. ______________ wrote Camptown Races.
    Stephen Foster. His other works include �Oh! Susanna,� �The Old Folks at Home,� �Jeannie with the Light Brown Hair,� and �Beautiful Dreamer.�
  12. A(n) _____________ is a particularly slow tempo
    Adagio. It is slower than andante, and faster than larghetto.
  13. ____________ music was jazz-style pieces written primarily for the piano at the beginning of the 1900s.
    Ragtime. Scott Joplin and Irving Berlin were two well-known ragtime artists. The music style enjoyed a revival in the 1970s, and the term inspired a book and Broadway musical.
  14. The male singing voice can be broken down into three ranges: bass (lowest), ____________ (middle), and tenor (highest).
    Baritone
  15. The female singing voice can be broken down into alto (lowest), _______-__________ (middle), and soprano (highest).
    Mezzo-soprano.
  16. ____________ _______ are traditional Latin worship music in the Roman Catholic Church.
    Gregorian chants. Sung in unison, most chants hold a single syllable across multiple notes.
  17. Fourteenth through seventeenth century Europe was known as the _______________.
    Renaissance. Major players during this time include Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, and William Shakespeare.
  18. _____________ was a music style popular from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, introducing harmony and replacing modes in church music.
    Baroque. Initially begun as an alternative to get away from polyphony (several melodies woven together as one, with no part taking precedence), the Baroque music period led to the development of major and minor tones that replaced outdated modes in music. Bach was a major Baroque composer.
  19. A _____________ is an unharmonized chant, frequently called a Gregorian chant.
    Plainsong. Originating from Greek music theory, plainsongs were the basis for polyphony. The official music of the Catholic Church, Mass and the Psalms are sung as plainsongs.
  20. How many modes served as the foundation for plainsongs? ______
    Eight. These modes, or arrangements of notes in a scale, were eventually rearranged as major and minor modes in the sixteenth century.
  21. ___________ music is monodic, with tones equal to one-fourth of a full Western tone
    Hindu. Melodies are based on ragas, specific outlines for improvisation. The drum and the sitar are generally the two main accompanying musical instruments. In India, accompanied music is considered the greatest type of music.
  22. Developed in India, the _________ has three to seven gut strings and 12 wire strings.
    Sitar. Since the 1960s, the sitar has also become a widely-used instrument in Western music.
  23. With its characteristic modal homophony and rhythm, __________ music increased to 12 tones in the eleventh century and 17 tones in the thirteenth century.
    Arabic. The nauba is the main musical form, with instrumental solos leading to vocal sections. The main instruments of Arabic music are the tanbur, a long-necked lute, and the ud, a short-necked lute
  24. Mainly using the organ, ______________ music was originally considered a spin-off on Greek music, but was then recognized as its own independent form.
    Byzantine. Along with the organ, the Greek instruments the kithara and the aulos are also frequently used as accompaniment. Instead of eight modes, Byzantine music has eight echoes.
  25. The main Byzantine hymn, the _________, is made up of nine odes to reference the nine canticles of the Old and New Testaments.
    Kanon. Although there are supposed to be nine odes, most kanons only have eight.
  26. A series of tones ordered by pitch is called a ________.
    Scale. Each type of music has its own unique identifying scale system, most of which continue to change as composers discover new needs
  27. There is usually a word at the beginning of a piece of classical music telling the performer the approximate speed the piece should be played at. Allegro and Presto are two different instruction words generally indicating a _______ speed.
    Fast. Allegro indicates a quick, lively speed. Presto indicates an even faster speed. On the other hand, Adagio or Andante would indicate a slow, or leisurely speed.
  28. _____________ refers to the work system of a piano tuner.
    Temperament. Particularly important with keyboard instruments that all must sound exactly alike in performance, temperament is the distribution of impurities to bring the instrument�s sound as close to others� as possible. �Equal� temperament divides the octave into 12 equal half-steps.
  29. To indicate a piece uses the C major scale, one says it is in the ______ of C major.
    Key. This concept was not developed until the seventeenth century.
  30. Using two, or more, keys at the same time is known as ______________.
    Polytonality. This technique was popular with many twentieth-century composers. Alternately, no key is referred to as atonality.
  31. Avoiding a tonal center in a musical piece is known as ___________.
    Atonality. After composers like Wagner and Strauss developed such complicated pieces that the key was all but lost underneath, later composers decided to abandon tonality altogether, including Webern and Ives.
  32. Composer ____________ created the tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen.
    Richard Wagner. Beginning with Das Rheingold and Die Walkure in 1857, Wagner, a German Romanticist, did not finish the third installment of Siegfried and G�tterd�mmerung until 1874. He built a theater especially for their performance.
  33. Die Meistersinger von N�rnberg was Wagner�s only ___________ opera.
    Comedic. Wagner composed this piece after abandoning Der Ring des Nibelungen, believing the collection would never be performed.
  34. ___________ created the symphonic poem, and composed The Faust Symphony and The Dante Symphony.
    Franz Liszt. A Hungarian composer, he began studying at age nine with the likes of Salieri. Though he wrote symphonies, the vast majority of his work was symphonic poems, including Les Preludes and Mazeppa. His daughter later married composer Richard Wagner.
  35. Mozart once claimed that rival composer ____________ tried to poison him.
    Antonio Salieri. The duo�s feud was dramatized for the motion picture Amadeus, and in a nineteenth-century opera, Mozart et Salieri, by Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov. Salieri served as court conductor in Vienna, and Mozart�s poisoning claim was never substantiated.
  36. The piano composer ____________ had a stormy affair with author George Sand, during which time he wrote 24 preludes
    Frederic Chopin. The first to establish the piano as an instrument in its own right, free to be separate from the rest of a symphony, most of Chopin�s work was highly romanticized. Because of this, the majority of his pieces are known by names he did not give them. Chopin�s finest works include piano concertos in E Minor and F Minor, along with sonatas in B Flat Minor.
  37. Legendary Italian violinist ____________ revived the practice of scordatura.
    Niccolo Paganini. Scordatura is a diverse tuning of the strings designed to optimize each note. A child prodigy, Paganini is also credited with perfecting double and triple stops.
  38. French composer _____________ debuted Symphonie fantastique in 1830, and later composed Romeo and Juliet and Benvenuto Cellini.
    Louis-Hector Berlioz. His work differed from traditional symphonies with its deeply personal style. Berlioz also composed the operas The Damnation of Faust and The Trojans, both of which are considered masterpieces today.
  39. ____________ music tells a story and requires a textual accompaniment for the audience to understand.
    Program. It is called such because the text is usually delivered to the audience in the form of a program. In contrast, absolute music is not written to follow a story.
  40. An instrumental piece with no vocal accompaniment was first known as a __________.
    Sonata. A piece with both voice and instruments is a cantata. Developed in Italy, over time the term sonata came to mean pieces with one keyboard.
  41. German composer _____________ had a distinctly romantic style that shows in Don Juan (1888) and Death and Transfiguration (1889).
    Richard Strauss. Beyond these symphonic poems, Strauss was also well-known for his operas, which include Salome, Electra, Der Rosenkavalier, and Arabella. He was briefly chief of Musical Affairs for the Nazis from 1933 to 1935.
  42. ____________�s first operatic masterpiece was Wozzeck.
    Alban Berg. Influenced by his friend Arnold Schoenberg, Berg practiced atonality and adopted Schoenberg�s 12-step tone system. In Lyric Suite and the opera Lulu, he perfected this musical style.
  43. The first harmonic of a tone is perceived as _________.
    Pitch. Today, pitch is symbolized by a letter name and represents the frequency of vibrations the instrument should make.
  44. A musical composition with a chorus, orchestra, and solo parts is a __________.
    Oratorio. An oratorio volgare also utilizes a narrator to explain the ongoing story to the audience. Giacomo Carissimi is credited with first finalizing this terminology.
  45. A(n) ____________ is a musical introduction to a ballet, opera, or other show.
    Overture. Frequently, an overture is a musical montage of all the forthcoming pieces in the show, as in West Side Story.
  46. Born in 1685, ___________ composed St. John Passion and Well-Tempered Clavier.
    J.S. Bach (Johann Sebastian). His other works include The Art of the Fugue, Magnificat, Passacaglia, and Fugue in C Minor. Bach began a career as an organist in 1707, and musical director for Prince Leopold of Anhalt in 1717.
  47. A famous technique of Bach, _____________ is the integration of independent melodies into a homogenous sound.
    Counterpoint. There are five types of counterpoint: note against note, two notes against one, four notes against one, syncopation, and florid counterpoint (the latter of which is a combination of the first four types).
  48. An eighteenth-century response to the Baroque period, ____________ was a graceful style largely utilizing the keyboard.
    Rococo. Those who adopted this style include Francois Couperin, Jean Philippe Rameau, and Bach�s sons. This style also influenced Haydn and Mozart.
  49. The text of an opera is known as the ___________.
    Libretto. Generally, a libretto covers factual details, while emotions and expressions are left to be felt within the music. Ottavio Rinuccini was the first known librettist.
  50. A(n) __________ is a parody of an opera.
    Operetta. As opposed to the slight difference between a novella and a novel, an operetta is always light-hearted and generally comedic, taking stabs at real opera storylines and music.
  51. George Gershwin's only opera is ________ ____ _______.
    Porgy and Bess. Sung in English, it chronicles the love story between the crippled Porgy and the beautiful, but taken, Bess.
  52. A famous present day opera singer is African American soprano _____________, who has earned five Grammy awards.
    Kathleen Battle. She has recorded for Sony Classical throughout her career, and has performed with the world's great orchestras.
  53. Founded in the nineteenth-century, examples of ___________ opera include Glinka�s A Life for the Czar and Tchaikovsky�s Eugene Onegin.
    Russian. Nearly all Russian operas deal themselves with Russian history and literature, though Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov notably created fantasy operas like May Night and The Snow Maiden.
  54. ______________ composed The Nutcracker.
    Peter Tchaikovsky. Among his large body of works, the Russian composer also created the operas Vakula, the Smith and The Queen of Spades, along with the symphonies Romeo and Juliet and The Sleeping Beauty.
  55. _____________ wrote the operas Otello and Falstaff, based on plays by Shakespeare.
    Giuseppe Verdi. His body of work, characterized by enchanting, sustained melodies, includes Il Travatore, Aida, The Sicilian Vespers, and Don Carlos.
  56. Verdi's ____ _________ was based on Alexandre Dumas' play, Camille.
    La Traviata. Alexandre Dumas is associated with works such as Three Musketeers, and the Counte of Monte Cristo. Verdi also did Rigoletto based on Victor Hugo�s work, The King�s Jester. Victor Hugo is known for The Hunchback of Notre Dame, and Les Miserables.
  57. ____________ wrote the opera Madama Butterfly in 1904.
    Giacomo Puccini. Initially, Madam Butterfly met with harsh criticism, but it soon took off in popularity after a few months. Prior to Butterfly, Puccini put on the smash opera successes La Boheme and Tosca.
  58. Under pressure to write an American opera, Puccini put together The Girl of the __________ _______.
    Golden West. In Italian, La Fanciulla del West was an acceptable success and led the way for Puccini�s final opera, Turandot.
  59. Beethoven�s sole opera was entitled _____________.
    Fidelio. The opera outlined the struggle between political power and personal autonomy. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) is one of the greatest European composers of all time, with some of his most famous pieces including his Ninth Symphony, Grosse Fuge, Piano Concertos 4 and 5, and the 1806 Violin Concerto.
  60. Beethoven�s Ninth Symphony includes which famous piece by Friedrich von Schiller? _____ ___ _____
    Ode to Joy. Schiller, a German historian, also wrote Don Carlos, which was later turned into an opera by Verdi. His literary works ranged from novels to songs like Ode to Joy.
  61. ____________, known for his optimistic, instrumentally brilliant pieces, taught both Mozart and Beethoven.
    Franz Joseph Haydn. Initially undiscovered, he began a thirty-year career as musical director for the Princes of Esterh�zy beginning in 1761. In his later years, he composed such symphonies as The Farewell Symphony, The Surprise Symphony, and The Military Symphony.
  62. The rattle, tambourine, and xylophone are all examples of _____________ instruments.
    Percussion. Other percussion instruments include the bell, castanets, and drums. Percussions make sound when they are struck, like a drum is hit with a stick.
  63. The violin and the guitar are both members of the __________ group of instruments.
    String. Other strings include the viola, cello, and bass.
  64. ____________ instruments include the oboe and the flute.
    Woodwind. The bassoon, saxophone, and the English horn are also woodwinds. The French horn, trombone and trumpet are examples of brass instruments.
  65. The _________ is slightly larger than the violin and shares the same notes as the cello.
    Viola. Still small enough to be played on one�s shoulder, it is in the middle register of the string family.
  66. The _______ is roughly 150-200% larger than the cello, but remains in the string family.
    Bass. The bass plays the widest variety of music out of the string category. It is also the heaviest and plays the lowest notes.
  67. The difference between an oboe and a clarinet is that an oboe has a _________ ______.
    Double reed. The oboe is mainly a classical instrument, while the clarinet is many times used in jazz as well. Aside from the double reed, the two instruments look very much alike.
  68. Name the instrument below. ___________
  69. Jazz musician Miles Davis played the fugelhorn and the ___________.
    Trumpet. Davis helped ease jazz into popular culture in the 1940s, and his Kind of Blue album remains a best-seller.
  70. Born in 1926 and a close friend of Miles Davis, _____________ was a renowned soprano and tenor saxophonist.
    John Coltrane. Some of his best-known recordings include A Love Supreme, Ascension, and Interstellar Space. Coltrane�s work was largely influenced by African music.
  71. The famous duo _________ _____ __________ began working together in 1871 on Thespis, and continued until 1896 with The Grand Duke.
    Gilbert & Sullivan. Sir Arthur Sullivan (the composer) and Sir William Gilbert (the librettist) wrote everything from dramas to comedies together. When they ended their working relationship after a heated argument, neither enjoyed anywhere near the degree of success they did as partners from then on.
  72. Andrew Lloyd Webber�s production of _______ was the longest-running Broadway show in history.
    Cats. Based on a collection of poems by T.S. Eliot, Cats ran on Broadway for ten years. The song Memory from the show has been recorded by many artists and is considered a musical staple.
  73. Andrew Lloyd Webber composed the scores for Jesus Christ, Superstar and Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat with lyricist ___________.
    Tim Rice. Rice has also collaborated with the likes of Elton John on the scores of Lion King and Aida.
  74. The score to Phantom of the Opera was composed by _____________.
    Andrew Lloyd Webber. Webber�s long run of hits began with Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat and in 2000 he became the dominant player in the London theater district after purchasing ten additional theaters.
  75. _____________ wrote the songs White Christmas and Easter Parade
    Irving Berlin. Berlin also composed God Bless America and There�s No Business Like Show Business, and worked on such musicals as Annie Get Your Gun.
  76. _____________�s most well-known musical production was West Side Story.
    Leonard Bernstein. His other musical credits include Candide, Wonderful Town, and On The Town, and the opera Trouble in Tahiti.
  77. ______________�s first solo musical score was A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum.
    Stephen Sondheim. Previously, Sondheim had collaborated with Leonard Bernstein on West Side Story and with Jule Styne on Gypsy.
  78. Originally starring Angela Lansbury, the Broadway show ___________ _______ had characters clamoring to buy meat pies actually made from dead humans.
    Sweeney Todd. One of Stephen Sondheim�s more popular productions, Sondheim went on to write the scores for Merrily We Roll Along, Sundays in the Park with George, and Into the Woods.
  79. The pair _________ _____ ____________ created such musicals as Oklahoma!
    Rodgers & Hammerstein. The success of Oklahoma! was followed by Carousel, South Pacific, and The King and I.
  80. In the musical ____ _______ ____ __, an English teacher is brought to teach the children of the King of Siam, and the two eventually fall in love.
    The King and I. The work of Richard Rodgers & Oscar Hammerstein, it includes such musical numbers as I Whistle a Happy Tune, Getting To Know You, and Shall We Dance.
  81. The songs All I Ask of You and Angel of Music are from the Broadway musical __________ ___ _____ _______.
    Phantom of the Opera. Originally starring Sarah Brightman and Michael Crawford, the musical score was composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber.
  82. The Broadway musical _______ _________ was based on the opera Madama Butterfly.
    Miss Saigon. Adapting the original story to fit the Vietnam War, and taking such risks as landing a real helicopter on the stage during performances, Miss Saigon was a popular hit on Broadway for many years.
  83. In music, __________ is faster than allegro but slower than prestissimo
    Presto. This usually describes explanatory song, that is necessary for the audience to understand, but hurried enough to not take away from the remainder of the performance.
  84. ____________ music is written for an ensemble, with one unique part for each player.
    Chamber. This style of music became popular with the introduction of concert halls in the nineteenth-century. Haydn and Mozart both fine-tuned chamber music into a predominantly quartet-based form.
  85. Puccini, Verdi, and Wagner were all ____________ composers.
    Romantic. Artists of this period were less concerned with rigid form and more interested in expressing emotions.
  86. Bach and Vivaldi were both composers during the ____________ period
    Baroque. Work from this period was overly complex and highly dramatic, with a great deal of juxtapositioning of elements to convey emotions.
  87. The ____________ period brought us Mozart, Salieri, and Haydn.
    Classical. This time period, from the late eighteenth to early nineteenth century, concerned itself with balance and clarity.

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