Race and Ethnicity Ch.1-5

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Race and Ethnicity Ch.1-5
2011-06-24 15:02:42
race ethnicity keywords

vocab from Race and Ethnicity by R.T.Schaefer
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  1. Sociology
    the systemic study of social behavior and human groups
  2. Sociololgical perspective
    • Seeing the general in the particular
    • Functional perspective- emphasizes how the parts of society are structured to maintain its stability
    • Conflict perspective- assumes that the social structure is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
  3. Sociological imagination
    The type of insight offered by the discipline of sociology. The term is used in introductory textbooks in sociology to explain the nature of sociology and its relevance in daily life
  4. Empirical
    based from personal experience
  5. The basic sociological argument
    every human experience is social
  6. Social stratification
    • "unequal education"
    • class. upper, middle and lower
  7. Life chances
    the opportunities each individual has to improve his or her quality of life
  8. amalgamation/fusion
    A+B+C=D (melting pot)
  9. Assimilation
  10. Pluralism
  11. [social] class
    upper, middle and lower class
  12. emigration
    leaving ones country for another
  13. ethnic group
    a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, often consisting of a common language, a common culture
  14. immigration
    is the act of passing or coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence
  15. labeling theory (symbolic interactionism)
    why certain people are viewed as deviant and others engaging in the same behavior are not because they come from the "wrong kind of family"
  16. marginality
    the status of being between two cultures
  17. migration
    • move FROM home country= emigration
    • move INTO new country= immigration
  18. stratification
    the building up of layers (class)
  19. minority group
    • holds less power. not about size, only about power
    • criteria: gender, language, disability status, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity
  20. racial group
    obviously physical characteristics
  21. segregation
    ex- U.S. laws and customs regaurding housing, education and work
  22. self-fulling prophecy
    ex- Greg being told by his father that he will be sucessful in school...while Mjike was told he was a nigger and wont turn out to be anything, which ended up the case in both of their lives.
  23. authoritarian personality
    • The personality type is defined by nine traits that were believed to cluster together as the result of psychodynamic, childhood experiences.
    • These traits are conventionalism, authoritarian submission, authoritarian aggression, anti-intraception, superstition and stereotypy, power and "toughness," destructiveness and cynicism, projectivity, and exaggerated concerns over sexuality (sexual repression).In brief, the authoritarian is predisposed to follow the dictates of a strong leader and traditional, conventional values.
  24. Bogardus scale of social distance
    scale measuring willingness to interact with various racial and ethnic groups
  25. contact hypothesis
    states that intergroup contact between people of equal status in harmonious circumstances will cause them to become less prejudiced and to abandon previously held stereotypes
  26. ethnocentrism
    the tendency to assume that one's culture and way of life are superior to all others
  27. ethnophaulism
    ethnic slurs
  28. exploitation theory
    • (social conflict theory)
    • racial prejudice is often used to justify keeping a group in a subordinate economic position (ie- the blacks in the U.S.)
  29. prejudice
    a negative attitude or belief directed toward an entire catagory of people
  30. racial profiling
    used by POLICE
  31. scapegoating theory
    blaming others and refusing to accept responsibility
  32. social distance
    the tendancy to approach or withdraw from a racial group
  33. stereotype
    an unreliabble generalization (positive or negative) about ALL members of a group that doesn't take individual differences into account
  34. absolute deprivation
    implies a fixed standard based on a minimum level of subsistance below which families should not be expected to exist
  35. affirmative action
    is the positive effort to recruit subordinate-group members, including women, for jobs, promotions and educational opportunities
  36. discrimination
    a behavior
  37. dual labor market
    • tiers of jobs in market
    • start lower->work way up
    • lower level of jobs, menial
    • all jobs paid, IRS, taxed, benefits, S.S.
  38. glass ceiling, glass escalator, glass wall
    women and minority men are moving up in corporations but encounter glass ceilings that block entry to top positions. in addition, they face glass walls that block lateral joves to areas from which executives are promoted. these barriers contribute to women and minority men not moving into the ultimate decision-making positions in the nation's corporate giants
  39. informal economy
    secondary labor market effecting many members of racial and ethnic minorities. Consists of transfers of money, goods or services NOT reported to the government
  40. institutional discrimination
    the denial of opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society
  41. relative deprivation
    is defined as the conscious experience of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities
  42. total discrimination
    refers to current discrimination operating in the labor market and past discrimination
  43. becoming white
    regional -- national -- white
  44. bilingualism
    can speak two languages
  45. civil religion
    is the religious dimension in the United States that merges public life with sacred beliefs
  46. creationists
    people who support the literal interpretation of the Bible
  47. intelligent design
    the idea that life is so complex it could only have been created by a higher intelligence
  48. principle of third-generation interest
    ex- Grandfather comes from foriegn country, tries to lose culture, Father has no interest in learning/isn't taught about culture, Son wants to know about culture
  49. respectable bigotry
  50. asylees
    foreigners who havfe already entered the U.S. and now seek protection because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution
  51. brain drain
    well educated people coming from their home countries to the U.S., when they are more needed in their counteries than here
  52. naturalization
    citizenship is conferred on a person at birth (cannot serve as president)
  53. refugees
    people living outside of their country of citizenship because of fear of political or religious persecution
  54. remittances (or "migradollars")
    monies that immigrants return to their countries of origin
  55. sinophobes
    fear of anything from China
  56. Xenophobia
    the fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners