In primitive societies, treatments for mental illness focused on removing what?
What societal changes in the late 1400s resulted in torture of mentally ill persons and their being burned at the stake?
Who was responsible in the 1800s for raising millions of dollars to construct more than 30 mental hospitals?
Which of the following congressional acts in 1937 funded the construction of psychiatric units in the United States?
During which war did the federal government request a plan from the Beers� Committee for Mental Hygiene for screening and treating mentally ill soldiers?
Imipramine, introduced in the 1950s I considered to be what type o medication?
In 1975, Congress passed mental health amendments for funding of what type of facilities?
The intention of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act f 1987 was what?
Decrease placement of the mentally ill in long-term care facilities
In the 1950s, treatment for the mentally ill confined to a psychiatric ward may have included what?
Mental health care in the US is based on what system?
Private insurance model
A client who is threatening to commit suicide should receive mental health care in which setting?
Inpatient mental health unit
The community support systems model views a client in what ways?
A mental health nurse in a case management role likely would include what interventions?
Which client is at higher risk for developing mental health problems?
Which medical problem is expected to increase dramatically over the next 15 years?
A mentally ill client who uses mind-altering chemicals is at higher risk of becoming addicted to what drugs?
The core of a multidisciplinary mental health care team includes who?
As a result of several military conflicts, veterans are presenting to mental health providers with what common problem?
The most important factor in mental health treatment is what?
What conviction is intellectually accepted as true whether or not it is based in fact?
Values in childhood are influenced most by who?
A client with terminal cancer refuses further chemotherapy. This is an example of what?
In the hospital cafeteria, a nurse begins to talk to a friend about the medical condition of a difficult client and calls the client by name. This is a breach of which ethical principle?
Involuntary psychiatric commitment may occur in which situation?
A client is a danger to others
The involuntary psychiatric commitment process begins with what action?
Filing of a formal petition
A nurse mistakenly gives a client a wrong medication, which results in the client�s death. This is what type of health care crime?
A mentally ill client who has been involuntarily hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric unit finds a back stairwell and leaves the unit and hospital without the knowledge of the staff. What is this an example of?
A diploma-prepared nurse in an outpatient clinic writes a prescription for an antidepressant medication without physician authorization. The nurse�s action represents an area of what?
A defined, organized, and practiced system of worship is which o the following?
A mentally ill client believes that disease is caused by disharmony with the supernatural. This belief is associated with which cultural group?
What term is used to define a person who fled his or her home country because of war or persecution to seek safety elsewhere?
Refugees have a higher incidence of what?
Which cultural group feels that good health is a gift from God and that illness is considered God�s punishment
Which practice of medicine is based on scientific treatment methods and tends to disregard that which cannot be explained by research?
The Amish strive to maintain the customs and traditions of previous generations. This is an example of which area of cultural assessment?
Sickle cell anemia commonly is found in which group of people?
A nurse reports that all mentally ill persons were abused as children. This is an example of what?
What is mental health?
The ability to cope with and adjust to the recurrent stresses of living in an acceptable way
What three factors influence mental health?
Inherited characteristics, childhood nurturing, & life circumstances
What is metal illness?
A disturbance in one�s ability to cope effectively
What behaviors determines that an individual is mentally ill?
Those that interfere with daily activities, impair judgment, or alter reality
Who wrote the first psychiatric text written in the us?
Dr. Benjamin Rush
What did Dr. Rush advocate?
Clean conditions & kindess
Who was responsible for liberating pts from their chains?
What did Philipe Pinel advocate?
Acceptance of the mentally ill as human beings in need of medical assistance, nursing care, and social services
Who wrote the book that began the Committee for Mental Hygiene?
What did Freud believe?
That forces both within and outside the personality were responsible for mental illness
Who was the first person to succeed in explaining human behavior in psychological terms?
What was the function of the Committee for Mental Hygiene?
To remove the stigma attached to mental illness; also developed plan to screen and treat mentally ill soldiers
What was the function of insulin therapy?
To induce comas in people with schizophrenia
Why was electroconvulsive therapy used?
To help improve severe depression
What is a lobotomy?
A surgical procedure that severs the frontal lobes of the brain from the thalamus
What was the function of the Mental Health Systems Act?
Clients� rights and established priorities for research & training
Who cared for the sick during the dark ages?
Why were monks forbidden to practice medicine?
It was considered too disruptive to their way of life
How did church doctrine perceive mental illness in the dark ages?
It was the result of some external force
What type of insurance models is used in the US?
The private insurance model
What determines if a pt is admitted for inpatient psychiatric care?
Severity of illness, level of dysfunction, suitability of setting, level of pt cooperation, pts ability to pay
When does discharge from an inpatient facility occur?
When behavior has been improved and treatment goals have been met
Who is responsible for controlling behavior for the outpatient?
What is recidivism?
A relapse of a symptom, disease, or behavior
What was the function of the National Alliance for Mental Illness?
1st comprehensive survey & grading of state adult mental health centers
Which legislative act called for a neighborhood based mental health care delivery system?
Community Mental Health Care Centers Act of 1963
How should mentally ill people be treated?
In the least restrictive manner
What type of setting offers a protected supervised environment?
Residential programs (group homes)
What type of setting provides care and treatment for pt who are too ill to be independent?
Day treatment center
What disorders have emerged as major challenges to treatment?
Schizophrenia & depression
What was the function of the Health Care Financing Administration?
Developed method where health care providers are paid at predetermined rates
Under the Health Care Financing Administration, what happens if a pt is not discharged in the allotted time?
Funding is stopped & the facility or the pt become responsible for payment
What changes influence society?
Lifestyles, work patterns, family structures and health
How is homelessness defined?
The lack of a regular & adequate nighttime dwelling
What factors contribute to homelessness?
Lack of housing, public assistance requirements, movement of mentally ill into communities that lack support
What type of transmission is it to be copying by an example?
What type of transmission of value sets standards for right and wrong where choice is not allowed?
What type of transmission of value allows one to be free to explore and learn from their experiences?
What mode of transmission rewards valued behaviors and punishes undesirable acts?
What mode of transmission offers a balance of freedom & restriction?
How does values clarification help care providers?
By helping them become aware of how their own values affect interactions with clients
What three steps are involved in values clarification?
Choosing, prizing, & acting
What is a parity law?
A law that requires insurance co to include coverage for mental illness that is equal to coverage for physical illness
In what two ways do people with mental illness los their rights?
They are unable to recognize & exercise their rights; mental health can impose limits to clients rights
What two purposes do ethical codes serve?
Acts as guidelines for standards of practice; let public know what behaviors can be expected from health care providers
What is autonomy?
The right of people to make personal choices
What is beneficence?
Actions that promote client health
What is nonmaleficence?
DO NO HARM
What is the nurses code of ethics?
Nurses and �.people, practice, profession, co-workers
What is a nurse practice act?
The legal framework for practice in that state
What is a policy?
A statement that defines a course of action
What is a voluntary admission?
When the pt originates the request for mental health
When can a voluntarily admitted client discharge themselves?
At any time
Who may commit an individual?
Physicians, police, representative of county administrator
When can a pt be involuntarily committed?
Only if the person is dangerous to self or others or cannot function in a reasonable manner
What are the most common crimes in a health care setting?
Homicide, theft, controlled substance abuse
What is the difference between homicide & murder
Homicide is killing; murder is killing with intent
What is written defamation?
What is verbal defamation?
What is assault?
An action that threatens a pt
What is battery?
Touching without the client�s permission
When does an invasion of privacy occur?
When a client�s space, body or belongings are violated
What is the main responsibility of mental health care providers?
To help clients cope with their problems
What is informed consent?
Agreement between client and caregiver that documents knowledge of & agreement to treatment
Who is responsible for obtaining informed consent?
Mental Health clients are presumed competent and able to consent to treatment.
Where can a cultures belief systems be found?
In political, social, & religious practices
What is the �norm� for a culture?
The rules for behavior
What is disease?
What is illness?
Social, emotional & intellectual dysfunctions
What is a naturalistic illness?
Illness caused by impersonal factors without regard for the individual
What is a personalistic illness?
Aggression or punishment directed toward a specific person
How do cultures classify their members?
By gender & age
What is cultural competence?
The process of continually learning about the culture with which we work & developing cross-cultural therapeutic health care skills
What is transcultural nursing?
The use of culturally sensitive therapeutic interventions
What are cultural assessments?
Tools that allow us to learn how clients perceive & cope within their world
What is communication?
Voice, gesture, touch
What doe environmental control focus on?
The individual�s ability to perceive & control the environment
What four distances are considered space comfort areas?
Public, social, personal, & intimate
What type of medications are metabolized differently from culture to culture?