patho ch17

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patho ch17
2011-06-25 12:23:38

patho ch 17 quiz 2
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  1. achlorhydria
    a lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
  2. agglutination
    the clumping together of red blood cells or bacteria, usually in response to a particular antibody
  3. bilirubin
    a yellow-orange compound produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells. It is found in bile, produced by the liver, It circulates in the bloodstream in two forms- indirect (unconjugated) and direct (conjugated). (responsible for yellow color in bruises, brown color in feces, and yellow color of jaundice)
  4. cyanotic
    blue coloring of the skin due to hypoxemia
  5. demyelination
    a degenerative process that erodes away the myelin sheath that normally protects nerve fibers, (exposes these fibers and appears to cause problems in nerve impulse conduction that may affect many physical systems (seen in multiple sclerosis).
  6. deoxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin that has lost its O2, it is dark, bluish-red color and found in venous blood
  7. diapedesis
    process in which WBCs leave the capillaries and enter the tissues when they are needed for defense.
  8. dyspnea
    difficulty breathing/labored breathing
  9. ecchymoses
    the medical term for a subcutaneous purpura larger than 1 centimeter or a hematoma, commonly called a bruise, it can be located in the skin or in a mucous membrane
  10. erythrocytosis
    is a disease state in which the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by red blood cells increases
  11. erythropoietin
    hormone originating form the kidney that stimulates RBC production in the red bone marrow in response to hypoxia
  12. ferritin
    is an ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion, the protein is produced by almost all living organisms, including bacteria, algae, and higher plants, and animals. In humans, it acts as a buffer against iron deficiency and iron overload
  13. gastrectomy
    removal or resection of part of the stomach
  14. glossitis
    inflammation of the tongue
  15. hemarthrosis
    bleeding into a joint cavity
  16. hematocrit
    refers to the proportion of cells (essentially erythrocytes) in blood and indicated the viscosity of blood. males-48%, females-42%
  17. hematopoiesis
    when various blood cells develop from a single stem cell
  18. hemolysis
    destruction of RBCs, may cause elevated serum levels of bilirubin.
  19. hemoptysis
    frothy sputum containing streaks of blood, spitting up blood
  20. hemosiderin
    a yellowish-brown granular intracellular pigment that is formed in some phagocytic cells (as macrophages) by the breakdown of hemoglobin and is probably essentially a denatured form of ferritin
  21. hemostasis
    blood clotting, controlling bleeding
  22. hepatomegaly
    enlarged liver
  23. hypochromic
    less color (of cells)
  24. interleukin
    protein (a cytokine) primarily produced by T-cells, active in inflammatory and immune responses and leukocyte communication
  25. leukocytosis
    above normal number of leukocytes in the blood
  26. leukopenia
    lack of WBCs in the blood
  27. leukopoiesis
    production of WBCs
  28. lymphadenopathy
    disease affecting the lymph nodes
  29. macrocyte
    an exceptionally large red blood cell occurring chiefly in anemias
  30. macrophage
    a phagocytic tissue cell of the immune system that may be fixed or freely motile, is derived from a monocyte, functions in the destruction of foreign antigens (as bacteria and viruses), and serves as an antigen-presenting cell
  31. malabsorption
    faulty absorption especially of nutrient materials from the gastrointestinal tract
  32. megaloblast
    abnormally large, nucleated, immature erythrocytes
  33. microcytic
    small cell
  34. morphology
    size and shape of cells
  35. myelotoxin
    inhibitory, depressant, or destructive to a component of bone marrow ( a serious side effect of chemotherapy)
  36. myelodysplastic
    are a diverse collection of hemotological medical conditions that involve ineffective production of (or dyplasia), or the myeloid class of blood cells
  37. neutropenia
    lack of neutrophils in the blood
  38. oxyhemoglobin
    bright red in color form O2 saturation in lungs, distinguishes arterial blood from venous blood
  39. pallor
    pale face
  40. pancytopenia
    a decrease in all blood cells-RBCs, WBCs, and thrombocytes
  41. petechiae
    tiny pinpoint hemorrhages under the skin
  42. phlebotomy
    incision in a vein and the collection of blood
  43. plasma
    the clear/yellowish fluid remaining after cells have been removed
  44. plethoric
    a condition caused by dilation of superficial blood vessels, characterized by a reddish face
  45. reticulocyte
    immature RBC
  46. serum
    liquid portion of the blood remaining after cells and fibrinogen (clotting factors) have been removed
  47. splenomegaly
    enlarged spleen
  48. stomatitis
    inflammation or ulceration in the mouth
  49. syncope
    fainting, temporary loss of consciousness
  50. tachycardia
    excessively rapid heartbeat
  51. thrombocytopenia
    abnormally low number of thrombocytes or platelets