Anatomy Lab

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asngrant6
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9200
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Anatomy Lab
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2010-03-04 23:41:29
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histolgy
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midterm
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  1. The standard position of the human body is the __________
    anatomical position
  2. Axial relating to:
    • head
    • neck
    • trunk
    • axis of the body
  3. Appendicular relating to:
    • limbs
    • attachments to the axis
  4. Abdominal pertaining to:
    the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
  5. Acromial pertaining to:
    the point of the shoulder
  6. antebrachial pertaining to:
    forearm
  7. Antecubital pertaining to:
    the anterior surface of the elbow
  8. Axillary pertaining to:
    the armpit
  9. Brachial pertaining to:
    arm
  10. Buccal
    cheek
  11. carpal
    wrist
  12. cervical
    neck region
  13. coxal
    hip
  14. crural
    leg
  15. digital
    fingers or toes
  16. femoral
    thigh
  17. fibular
    side of the leg
  18. Frontal
    forehead
  19. Hallux
    great toe
  20. Inguinal
    groin
  21. mammary
    breast
  22. mental
    chin
  23. nasal
    nose
  24. oral
    mouth
  25. orbital
    bony eye socket (orbit)
  26. palmar
    palm of hand
  27. patellar
    anterior knee (kneecap region)
  28. Pedal
    foot
  29. pollex
    thumb
  30. pubic
    genital region
  31. Sternal
    region of the breastbone
  32. Tarsal
    ankle
  33. thoracic
    chest
  34. umbilical
    navel
  35. olecranal
    posterior aspect of the elbow
  36. otic
    ear
  37. perineal
    region between the anus and external genitalia
  38. plantar
    sole of foot
  39. scapular
    scapula or shoulder blade area
  40. sural
    calf
  41. vertebral
    area of the spinal column
  42. cephalic
    head
  43. dorsum
    back
  44. gluteal
    buttocks
  45. lumbar
    area of the back between the ribs and hips
  46. manus
    hand
  47. Superior
    above
  48. Inferior
    below
  49. Anterior
    front
  50. Posterior
    back
  51. Medial
    toward the midline
  52. Lateral
    away from the midline
  53. Cephalad (cranial)
    toward the head
  54. Caudal
    toward the tail
  55. Dorsal
    backside
  56. Ventral
    belly side
  57. Proximall
    nearer the trunk or attached end
  58. Distal
    Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
  59. Superficial (external)
    toward or at the body surface
  60. Deep (internal)
    away from the body surface
  61. When a section is made through a body wall or through an organ, it is made along an imaginary surface or line called a _____
    plane
  62. ______ plane runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts
    sagittal
  63. If the sagittal plane divides the body into equal parts, right down the median plane, it is called a ______, or ______ plane
    • median
    • midsagittal
  64. All other sagittal planes are referred to as ______ planes
    parasagittal
  65. ______ plane sometimes called a coronal plane
    frontal
  66. The _____ plane divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior parts
    frontal
  67. A ______ plane runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
    transverse
  68. When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane, the sections are commonly called ______ sections
    cross
  69. The dorsal body cavity can be subdivided into the ____ cavity, in which the brain is enclosed within the rigid skull, and the _____ (spinal) cavity, within which the delicate spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column
    • cranial
    • vertebral
  70. The superior _____ cavity is separted from the rest of the vental cavity by the dome shaped diaphragm
    thoracic
  71. The cavity inferior to the diaphragm is often referred to as the ______ cavity
    abdominopelvic
  72. The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered with an exceedingly thin, double layered membrane called ______ or _____ membrane
    • serosa
    • serous
  73. The part of the membrane lining the cavity walls is referred to as the _____ serosa, and it is continous with a similar membrane, the ______ serosa, covering the external surface of the organs within the cavity
    • parietal
    • visceral
  74. The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs is the _____, enclosing the lungs is the _____, and that around the heart is the ______
    • peritoneum
    • pleura
    • pericardium
  75. The abdominal surface is divided into four quadrants:
    • right upper
    • right lower
    • left upper
    • left lower
  76. Umbilical region:
    centermost region, includes the umbilicus
  77. epigastric region:
    overlies most of the stomach
  78. Hypogastric (pubic) region:
    encompasses the pubic area
  79. Iliac (inguinal) region:
    Between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hip bones
  80. hypochondriac regions:
    overlying the ribs
  81. oral cavity:
    mouth which contains the teeth and tongue
  82. nasal cavity:
    part of the passages of the respiratory system
  83. orbital cavity:
    in the skull house the eyes
  84. Skeletal system:
    • bones
    • cartilages
    • tendons
    • ligaments
    • joints
  85. The ______ microscope is a precision instrument and should always be handled with care
    compound
  86. Base:
    supports the microscope
  87. Substage light or mirror:
    located in the base
  88. Stage:
    the platform the slide rests on while being viewed
  89. Condensor:
    small substage lens that concentrates the light on the specimen
  90. Iris diaphragm lever:
    Arm attached to the base of the condensor that regulates the amount of light passing through the condensor
  91. Coarse adjustment knob:
    used to focus on the specimen
  92. Fine adjustment knob:
    Used for precise focusing once coarse focusing has been completed
  93. Head or body tube:
    Supports the objective lens system and the ocular lens or lenses
  94. Arm:
    vertical portion of the microscope connecting the base and head
  95. Nosepiece:
    rotating mechanism at the base of the head
  96. Objective lense:
    Adjustable lens system that permits use of a scanning lens, a low power lens, a high power lens, or oil immersion lens
  97. Resolution:
    resolving power
  98. All cells have three major regions or parts that can readily be identified with a light microscope:
    • nucleus
    • plasma membrane
    • cytoplasm
  99. When the cell is not dividing, the genetic material is loosely dispersed throughout the nucleus in a threadlike form called _____
    chromatin
  100. When the cell is in the process of dividing to form daughter cells, the chromatin coils and condenses, forming dense, darkly staining rodlike bodies called ______
    chromosomes
  101. The nucleus also contains one or more small round bodies, called ______, composed primarily of proteins and ribonucleic acid
    nucleoli
  102. The nucleus is bound by a double layered porous membrane, the _______
    nuclear envelope
  103. The nuclear envelope is similar in composition to other cellular memranes, but it is distinguished by its large ______
    nuclear pores
  104. In _______ transport the cell must provide energy to power the transport process
    active
  105. In some cells the membrane is thrown into minute fingerlike projections or folds called _______
    microvilli
  106. Suspended in the cytosol, the fluid filled cytoplasmic material, are many small structures called _______
    organelles
  107. Ribosomes:
    composed of RNA and protein
  108. Endoplasmic reticulum:
    highly folded system of membranous tubules and cisternae (sacs) that extends throughout the cytoplasm
  109. Rough ER:
    studded with ribosomes
  110. Golgi apparatus:
    packaging proteins or other substances for export from the cell
  111. lysosomes:
    Digest worn out cell organelles and foreign substances that enter the cell
  112. Peroxisomes:
    Detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals
  113. Mitochondria:
    Powerhouse of the cell
  114. Centrioles:
    • Direct the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division
    • form the bases of the cilia and flagella
  115. Cytoskeletal elements ramify throughout the cytoplasm, forming an internal scaffolding called the _______ that supports and moves substances within the cell
    cytoskeleton
  116. The ______ are slender tubules formed of proteins called tubulins, which the ability to aggregate and then disaggergate spontaneously
    microtubules
  117. _______ filaments are stable proteinaceous cytoskeletal elements that act as internal guy wires to resist mechanical (pulling) forces acting on the cells
    intermediate
  118. _____ filaments, ribbon or cordlike elements, are formed of contractile proteins, primarily actin
    micro
  119. _____ phase is the period of a cells life when it is carrying out its normal metabolic activities and growing
    inter
  120. ______ phase is the second phase of mitosis. the chromosomes cluster at the middle of the cell, with their centromeres precisely aligned at the extract center of the spindle
    meta
  121. ______ phase the third phase, begins abruptly as the centromeres of the chromosomes split, and each chromatid now becomes a chromosome in its own right
    ana
  122. _____ phases begins as soon as chromsomal movement stops
    telo
  123. In ____ processes, concentration or pressure differences drive the movement
    passive
  124. In _____ processes, the cell provides energy to power the transport process
    active
  125. Concentration gradient:
    difference in concentration
  126. _____ is the movement of the molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration
    diffusion
  127. The diffusion of solutes through a differentially permeable membrane is called _______
    simple diffusion
  128. The diffusion of water through a differentially permeable membrane is called ______
    osmosis
  129. _____ diffusion a process by which substances are transported across cell membranes by means of protein carrier molecules
    facilitated
  130. A solution surrounding a cell is _______
    hypertonic
  131. A solution surrounding a cell is ______ if it contains fewer nonpenetration solute particles than the interior of the cell
    hypotonic
  132. Large particles and molecules are transported across the membrane by ______ transport
    vesicular
  133. Movement may be into the cell _______ or out of the cell ______
    • endocytosis
    • exocytosis
  134. In ______, also called fluid phase endocytosis, the cell membrane sinks beneath the material to form a small vesicle, which then pinches off into the cell interior
    pinocytosis
  135. In _______ (cell eating), parts of the plasma membrane and cytoplasm expand and flow around a relatively large or solid material
    phagocytosis
  136. ____ study of tissues
    histology
  137. A thin extracellular membrane underlying epithelial tissue is called the _______
    basement membrane
  138. _____ epithelia, consisting of one layer of cells attached to the basement membrane
    simple
  139. ____ epithelia, consisting of two or more layers of cells
    stratified
  140. Squamous:
    scalelike
  141. Cuboidal:
    cubelike
  142. Columnar:
    Column shaped
  143. _______ epithelium is actually a simple columnar epithelium
    pseudostratified
  144. _____ epithelium is a rather peculiar stratified squamous epithelium formed of rounded or plump cells with the ability to slide over one another to allow the organ to be stretched
    transitional
  145. ______ glands lose their surface connection (duct) as they develop. Thus they are ductless glands
    Endocrine
  146. _____ glands retain their ducts, and their secretions empty through these ducts to an epithelial surface
    exocrine
  147. Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important. Secretes lubricating substances in serosae. Located in the kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, lining of the heart, blood vessels
    Simple Squamous
  148. Secretion and absorption. Located in the kidney tubules
    simple cuboidal
  149. Absorption & secretion of musuc. located in the digestive tract, gallbladder, and uterus
    simple columnar
  150. Secretion, particularly of mucus & propulsion of mucus by ciliary action. Located in the trachea and upper respiatory tract
    pseudostratified columnar
  151. Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion. located in the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
    Stratified squamous
  152. Stretches readily and permits distension of urinary organ by contained urine. Located in the ureters, bladder, and part of the urethra
    Transitional
  153. ______ connective tissue is a soft packaging material that cushions and protects body organs
    Areolar
  154. _____ tissue provides insulation for the body tissues and a source of stored food
    adipose
  155. Dense connective tissue:
    ligaments and tendons
  156. Fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types including white blood cells, mast cells, and macrophages. Located in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleenand
    Reticular connective tissue
  157. Provides structural strength. Located in the dermis of the skin and joints
    dense irregular
  158. Supports and resists compressive stress. Forms cartilages of the nose, trachea, and larynx
    hyaline cartilage
  159. Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility. Supports the external ear
    Elastic cartilage
  160. Tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock. Located in the intervertebral discs, and discs of knee joint
    fibrocartilage
  161. Supports and protects. Located in the bones
    Osseous tissue (bone)
  162. Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes. Contained within blood vessels
    Blood
  163. The ____ are highly specialized to receive stimuli and to conduct waves of excitation, or impulses, to all part of the body
    neurons
  164. Voluntary movement. Attached to bones or occasionally to skin
    Skeletal muscle
  165. Found only in the heart
    Cardiac muscle
  166. found mainly in the walls of hollow organs
    smooth muscle
  167. single row of cells immediately adjacent to the dermis. Its cells are constantly undergoing mitotic cell division to produce millions of new cells daily
    Stratum basale
  168. A stratum consisting of several cell layers immediately superficial to the basal layer
    Stratum spinosum
  169. A thin layer named for the abundant granules its cells contain
    stratum granulosum
  170. A very thin translucent band of flattened dead keratinocytes with indistinct boundaries. not present in regions of thin skin
    statrum lucidum (clear layer)
  171. outermost epidermis layer consists of some 20 to 30 cell layers, and accounts for the bulk of the epidermal thickness
    statrum corneum (horny layer)
  172. The superficial dermal region composed of areolar connective tissue
    papillary layer
  173. The deepest skin layer. Composed of dense irregular connective tissue and contains many arteries and veins, sweat and sebaceous glands, and pressure receptors
    Reticular layer
  174. the visible attached portion of the nail:
    body
  175. the portion of the nail that grows out away from the body
    free edge
  176. the part that is embedded in the skin and adheres to an epithelial nail bed
    root
  177. skin folds that overlap the borders of the nail
    nail folds
  178. the thick proximal nail fold commonly called the cuticle
    eponychium
  179. the thickened proximal part of the nail bed containing germinal cells responsible for nail growth
    nail bed
  180. The portion of the hair enclossed within the follicle is called the _____
    root
  181. Portion projecting from the scalp surface is called the _____
    shaft
  182. The hair ______ is a collection of well nourished germinal epithelial cells at the basal end of the follicle
    bulb
  183. Deep into the dermis is the _____
    hypodermis
  184. Small bands of smooth muscle cells connect each hair follicle to the papillary layer of the dermis
    Arrector pili muscle
  185. ____ is the product of sebaceous glands
    Sebum
  186. These glands are distributed all over the body. Produce clear perspiration consisting primarily of water, salts, and urea
    Eccrince glands (merocrine)
  187. found predominantly in the axillary and genital areas, these glands secrete a milky protein and fat rich substances
    apocrine glands
  188. Long bones:
    • femur
    • phalanges
  189. Short bones:
    • tarsals
    • carpals
  190. this bone looks smooth and homogeneous
    Compact
  191. This bone is composed of small trabeculae of bone and lots of open space
    spongy
  192. Synarthroses:
    immovable joints
  193. amphiarthroses:
    slightly movable joints
  194. diarthroses:
    freely movable joints
  195. In _____ the irregular edges of the bones interlock and are united by very short connective tissue fibers
    sutures
  196. ______ in which a tooth is secured in a bony socket by the periodontal ligament
    gomphosis
  197. In __________ the articulating bones are connected by short ligaments of dense fibrous tissue.
    syndesmoses
  198. ______ the bony portions are united by hyaline cartilage
    synchondroses
  199. _______ growing together
    Symphysis
  200. ________ joints are those in which the articulating bone ends are separted by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid
    Synovial
  201. ________ a movement, generally in the sagittal plane, that decreases the angle of the joint and reduces the distance between two bones
    Flexion
  202. A movement that increases the angle of a joint and the distance between two bones or parts of the body
    Extension
  203. Movemet of a limb away from the midline plane of the body, generally on the frontal plane, or the fanning movement of fingers and toes when they are spread apart
    Abduction
  204. Movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
    Adduction
  205. Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis without lateral or medial displacement
    Rotation
  206. A combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction commonly oberved in ball and socket joints like the shoulder
    circumduction
  207. Movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward facing position to a posterior or downward facing position
    pronation
  208. Movement of the palm from a posterior position to an anterior position
    Supination
  209. A movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of the foot
    Inversion
  210. A movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot
    Eversion
  211. A movement of the ankle joint in a dorsal direction
    Dorsiflexion
  212. A movement of the ankle joint in which the foot is flexed downward
    plantar flexion

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