Card Set Information
endocrine review game
List three specifically endocrine organs
Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal
What does thyroid hormone do?
Controls metabolism, glucose, fat,
What does PTH do?
Demineralizes bone to raise serum Calcium
Differentiate between gluco corticoids and mineral corticoids
G- metabolism, inflammation, stress,glucose
Name two endocrine changes that occur with aging
Inc. hypothyroidism, thyroid CA, type II DM, osteoporosis
What systemic problems occur with acromegaly?
Organs & skeleton can't support enlarged structures
Name three s/sx of Diabetes Insipidus
Polyuria, low SG (>and equl to 1.002), thirst weakness, dehydration
Name 2 tx for Diabetes Insipidous
Replace volume, DDAVP, pitressin
What neuro sx may accompany SIADH?
HA, muscle twitching, changes in LOC, Sz
What labs would support SIADH?
Hyponatremia, low serum osmolarity
List three sx of hyperthyroidism
Restless, weakness, fatigue, tachycardias, tremors, appetite heat intolerance, diarrhea, exophthalmos, goiter, weight loss
What medications are ordered for hyperthyroidism?
PTU, methimazole, beta blockers, eye drops
Name 2 nursing precautions for thyroidectomy pts
Support head with hands, don't hyperextend, elevate HOB, monitor for bldg, sxn/trach/ suture remover in room, protect voice, monitor calcium
What electrolyte imbalance may be associated with thyroidectomy?
List three sx of thyrotoxicosis
Hyperthermia, tachycardia, restlessness, CP, exophthalmos, severe weight loss
Name three tx for thyrotoxicosis
Antithyroid meds, beta blockers, IV corticosteroids, IV fluids, 02, supportive care
List three sx of hypothyroidism
Sluggishness, cold intolerance, apaty, fatique, constipation, dry, thin, brittle hair, edema, menstural disorders, elevated TSH, low HR, RR, T
Name two teaching points for thyroid replacement therapy
Take in am, don't stop suddenly, avoid Increase iodine foods, monitor thyroid levels, monitor for sx thyroid toxicity
What electrolyte is regulated by parathyroid hormone?
List three sx of hypoparathyroidism
Tetany, muscle cramps, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, N/V diarrhea, hypotension, bradycardia, sz, paresthesias, bleeding, +Chvostek & Trousseau's signs
Describe the treatment for hypoparathyroidism
Calcium supplement, Vit D, high Calcium, low Phos.diet
Name three sx of hyperparathyroidism
Hypercalcemia, osmotic diuresis, sx dehydration bone pain, pathologic fx, weakness, arrhythmias, N/V constipation, clots
Name two treatments for hyperparathyroidism
IV fluids, diuretics, biphosphonates, parathyroidectomy, salmon calcitonin
Name two teachings for fosamaax
Take alone with water, in am, before breakfast, upright for 30"
List three sx of adrenal insufficiency
Hyponatremia, loww of extra cellular fluid, dec. cardiac output, hyperkalemia, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia, dehydration, hyperpigmentation
List two tx for adrenal insufficiency
Hydrocortisone or fludrocaortisone (lifelong), consider DHEAS
Name four side effects from glucocorticoids
Fluid retention, mood changes, hyperglycemia, GI ulceration, fragile skin, osteoporosis, immunosupression, inc. intraocular pressure, wt gain, cushingoid appearance
List two teaching points for adrenal insufficiency pts.
When to call MD, reg. schedule for meals/exercise, immediate attention to infection/trauma, medic alert bracelet, don't dc meds suddenly, call MD for N/V/D
What are two sx of pheochromocytoma?
HTN, palpitations, sweating, HA, fainting, increased glucose
What med is used to treat pheochromocytoma?
Phentolamine (Regitine) or other alpha blockers
List three sx of Cushing's syndrome
Body changes, muscle wasting, thin skin, osteoporosis, renal calculi, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, HTN, Immunosuppression, ulcers, hirsuitism, acne, mood changes , menstrual disorders
List two tx for Cushing's syndrome
Remove pituitary/radiation, adrenalectomy sx management(diuretics, antihypertensives, low sodium/carb diet, abx)
List two sx of hyperaldosteronism
HA, weakness, fatigue, HTN, dysrhthymias, hypokalemia, hypernatremia
List two treatments for hyperaldosteronism
Adrenalectomy, corticosteroids, spironalactone, Na restriction
List three classic sx of DM
Polyphagia, polydypsia, polyuria
Why does polyuria occur in DM?
Glucose exceeds renal threshold, glucosuria occurs, osmotic diuresis
What lab would indicate a risk for acidosis in a pt. with DM?
How does type II differ from type I DM?
In type II DM some endogenous insulin exists, does not always require exogenous insulin
What should be tried first to control type II DM?
What does A1C measure?
Average blood sugar over 3 months
List three health promotion strategies to avoid DM
Normal wt, balanced diet, regular exercise, CBG q3y after 45 in high risk
List 4 dietary guidelines for DM pts
Normalize CBG, 60-70% carbs, 12-20% protein, 10% fats, inc. fiber, low sodium, cautious ETOH, time meals w/insulin/exercise, monitor with sickness
How do sulfonylureas work?
Stimulate pancreas to secrete insulin-can cause hypoglycemia
What is a benefit of biguanides?
Doesn't cause hypoglycemia
How should injection sites be rotated?
rotate sites within one general area - abdomen preferred
Which insulin should be drawn up first?
Short or rapid acting
What is unique about lantus insulin
No peak, lasts 24 hrs
Name three filndings that would differentiate DKA from hyperglycemia
Ketones, kussmauls respirations, acidotic pH, acetone breath
Name three tx for DKA
IV insulin, IVF, potassium replacements, I/O's cardiac monitoring
Name three ways HHNS differs from DKA
Usually in type 2, CBG higher, pH normal, osmolarity higher, more neuro sx
Name two causes of hypoglycemia
Glucose lowering agents, inadequate calories, excess exercise, ETOH
List three sx of hypoglycemia
Hunger, irritability, tremors, perspiration, double vision, HA, sz
List three sx of hyperglycemia
Differentiate b/w Dawn & Somogyi phenomenon
Dawn - CBS rises b/w 0400 & 0800.
Somogyi- hypoglycemia results in rebound hyperglycemia in am, insulin resistance for 12-48 hr
What are common sx of diabetic neuropathy?
Pain, numbness, sweating/pupil, HR/BP changes, gastroparesis/constipation, GU dysfunction
How should DM pts monitor for sx of renal pathology?
Monitor urine for protein
List three vascular disturbances assoc. with DM
PVD, CAD, CVA
List three reasons why pts with DM are at greater risk for infection
Vascular/neurologic changes (nutrition/sensation), hyperglycemia (medium), neutrophilic changes, delayed bladder emptying, glucosuria