Geography Test 1

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jbmetzger
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92095
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Geography Test 1
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2011-06-26 18:38:28
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Geography
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Summer Session II Geography Test
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  1. Etymology
    "geo" earth and "graphos" desciribe. To describe the eart
  2. Map's do what?
    They describe the earth's representation
  3. Tradition vs Modern Geography
    Replacement of "what is where" with "why what is where."
  4. Define geography
    Spatial or regional distrbutions of the interrelationships of physical environments and/or human behaviors over the surgace of the earth.
  5. Sub-divisions of Geography
    Physical, human, systematic, regional
  6. Examples of physical geography
    climatology, hydrology
  7. Examples of human geography
    urban, political, religious, rural, economic
  8. Examples of systematic geography
    topical, social, meteorological, urban
  9. Examples of regional geography
    East Asia, North America
  10. Defining development
    • Concept of “development” only emerges after WWII as former colonial possessions become “objects” of transformation by the West.
    • When these colonial possessions became independent.
  11. Define economic growth
    goods and service production expanded
  12. Define economic development
    The quality of life in a particular country. The basic needs of a country population are being met. Access to education, to health care, to financial resources
  13. Myths about geography and development
    Environment and natural resources do not guarantee prosperity. Cultural barriers. Historical experience is important.
  14. Regional development labels
    Classifying countries by economic growth/development
  15. First world
    Rich, market based. Capitalistic. Japan
  16. Second world
    Marxist to market based. E. Europe. Cuba is a Marxist country and so is N. Korea.
  17. Third world
    Poorest and most numerous
  18. BRIC
    Brazil, Russia, Indian and China whose large economies are rapidly industrailizing. Our oversea productions are not helping our economy.
  19. Newly industrialized
    Resticted to E and Southeast Asia. S. Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia.
  20. Oil rich
    Resource dependent. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab emerants, Iraw. We are looking at income, we are looking at their long term growth. These countries completely depend on this resource. This makes it and unstable coutnry because they are SOL when they run out of those resources.
  21. True or False: Rapid growth as we know it today is an old time phenomenon
    False. It is a recent phenomenon
  22. Majority of growth has taken place where?
    In less developed countries. Poor people have many children. Many children do not make people poor.
  23. What makes for rapid doubling time?
    High growth rate, or natural increase.
  24. Transformation accompanies what?
    Economic prosperity
  25. Observation on demographic transformation
    If a country is generally rural, then it would be poor. The more urban a country is, the richer a country is. The more industrialized a population is the fewer children families will have the more urban it will be.
  26. What does Malthus say about population?
    Population/resource imbalance spells demographic disaster. He expected the population to out live the ability to grow enough food to feed the whole population He was wrong.
  27. What is the one region in the world that cannot feed itself?
    Sub-Saharan Africa
  28. What does Marx say about population?
    Unequal access to resouces creates economic inequalities.
  29. What is the difference between weather and climate?
    Weather is a day to day base and climate is an average.
  30. Climate is a mixture of what?
    Precipitation and temperature.
  31. Observations on precipitation
    It's wetter near the equator and there is a strip of desert a certain degree above and below the equator.
  32. Observations on temperature
    Greater range of the temp. North of the equator greater land masses. South more water. Water moderates temp. Further inland more temp differences.
  33. Observations on vegetation
    Either side of the equator is tropical forest then tropical savannas. East side of continents.
  34. Primary-extractive
    A country who's economy is anchored i theis category are typically poorer country. Ex, agriculture, mining.
  35. Secondary-manufacturing
    Manufactures finished goods or where they are suitable for use by other businesses, for export, or sale to domestic consumers.
  36. Tertiary-services
    Health services, financial services, education, tourism. There is a correlation between wealth and these services.
  37. Quaternary-information and research
    Stock markets.
  38. Geographical Dimensions of Development
    GNI and measuring wealth. Gross National income per a person. It is the ebst statisic to use to measure income. Since WWII global GNI has dramatically increased. Increase has not been spatially inform. More developed/less developed country GNI gap has widened. 20% of the richest countries have 90% of the global income.
  39. Problems with GNI
    Urban versus rural poverty. Wealth distribution. Gender differences.
  40. Per capita inanimate energy consumption
    The greater the amount of energy consumed the richer the country.
  41. Life expectancy
    Tells you something about a countries health care delivery system.
  42. Women's status GDI
    Women don't go to school in the usual suspects. Women are persuaded to vote a certain way. Feminization of poverty and double work load.
  43. Core-periphery model
    Comes for Marx. Core countries are rich and perupher countries are poor. You can split of countries into these categories.
  44. True or False. Core regions add value to resouces of the periphery.
    True.
  45. Neo-colonialism and dependency model
    Very Marx-esque. Political independence, but little economic independence. Multinationals and local elite have replaced colonial government.
  46. Globalization and neoliberalism
    This impacts our personal lives the most. Spread of free market capitalism. Open borders, less government intervention. Increased interconnection of places. Spread of "neoliberalism" as a development philosophy.
  47. Define neoliberalism
    A new market based system.
  48. Millennium Development Goals
    Gender equality and women empowerment, end to severe poverty and hunger, primary education, end to HIV/Aids, malaria, and other diseases, fair trade, child and maternity health, environmental sustainability, global partnership.
  49. What is the nature of the second agricultural revolution?
    New technology that essentially did away with human farmers
  50. Compare the global population totals in 1650 and 2010.
    1650 - 500 million; 2010 - 6.9 billion
  51. ID the three principal global regions of dense population concentrations
    The Indiana subcontinent, E China and adjacent areas, and Europe.
  52. What percentage of the earth's land surface is considered sparsely inhabited?
    80%
  53. ID the 5 actors/players engaged in the globalization process
    Transnational corporation, International Monetary Fund, The World Bank, The World Trade Organization, The Euopean Union.
  54. What are the two observations that argue against homogenization?
    Local cultures add their own influence to the imported consumer culture. Man countries promote a consumer nationalism that encourages local over "foreign" goods.
  55. Who are the winners and losers of globalization?
    Winners - world cities like NYC, Hong Kong, and London. Losers - includes people that have lost jobs due to wage competition elsewhere.
  56. Three primary forms of soil degradation
    Soil erosion, salinization, chemical contamination
  57. Soil erosion
    the loss of the protective vegetative cover
  58. Salinization
    the buildup of excess minerals and salts in the soil.
  59. Chemical contamination
    from insecticides and herbicides, sprays to control plant disease, and chemical fertilizers.
  60. Plus-places
    Sites that have great advantage from an agricultural standpoint.
  61. Edge-places
    dense populations are found in many palces where water and land meet.
  62. rich places
    Associated w/ rich mineral deposits
  63. Three primary hearths of innovation
    The middle east, the indus river valley, and the valley of the huang he.
  64. Define cultural convergence
    The idea that the way in which people live tends to become more similar as development occurs around the world.
  65. First stage of Rostow's theory of development
    traditional society where most workers are farmers, have limited savings, and use age-old production methods.
  66. Second stage of Rostow's theory
    "preconditions for takeoff" which may be initiated internally by the desire of the people for a higher level of living or externally by forces that intrude into the region.
  67. Third stage of Rostow's theory
    takeoff is when new technologies and capital are applied and production is greatly increased.
  68. Fourth stage of Rostow's theory
    "drive to maturity," a continuation of the process begun in stage three. Urbanization progresses and manufacturing and service activities become increasingly important.
  69. Fifth stage of Rostow's theory
    High mass consumption. Person incomes are high and abundant goods and services are readily available.
  70. What is the Green Revolutiom
    It combined selected high-yielding crop with technological packages of fetilizer, pesticides, water management, and capital to boost yields.

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