NBDE 1998 Anatomy and Biochemistry

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NBDE 1998 Anatomy and Biochemistry
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NBDE 1998 Anatomy and Biochemistry
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  1. Antidiuretic hormone is PRODUCED by cells that reside in which of the following structures, cells or areas?A) Pars intermedia
    B) Acidophils of the pars distalis
    C) Pars nervosa
    D) Supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus
    E) Basophils of the pars distalis
    D
  2. The pyramids contain
    A) upper and lower motor neuron fibers.
    B) lower motor neuron fibers only.
    C) pain fibers.
    D) upper motor neuron fibers only.
    E) sensor fibers.
    D
  3. Which of the following anterior primary rami form the medial cordof the brachial plexus?
    A) C-6 and C-7
    B) C-5, C-6, and C-7
    C) T-2 and T-3
    D) C-8 and T-1
    E) C-4 and C-5
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Preganglionic sympathetic fibers to the head have their cell bodies in the
    A) superior cervical ganglia.
    B) gray rami communicantes of the thoracic region.
    C) intermediolateral horns of the thoracic spinal cord.
    D) paravertebral ganglia.
    E) cervicothoracic ganglia.
    C
  5. In the photomicrograph below of a ground section of a tooth viewed by transmitted light, some dentinal tubules appear black because they

    A) have become filled with air during sectioning.
    B) contain deeply stained odontoblastic processes.
    C) are filled with minerals.
    D) are filled with bacteria.
    E) are filled with blood.
    A
  6. Fiber tracts passing from the thalamus to the cortex are found in which of the following?
    A) Internal capsule
    B) Medial lemniscus
    C) Lateral lemniscus
    D) Anterior commissure
    E) Corpus callosum
    A
  7. Which of the following is the MOST numerous cell type in the normal dental pulp?
    A) Odontoblast
    B) Macrophage
    C) Mast cell
    D) Adipocyte
    E) Fibroblast
    E
  8. Which of the following represents the MOST vascular portion of the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint?
    A) Posterior thick zone (band)
    B) Bilaminar zone
    C) Anterior thick zone (band)
    D) Intermediate thin zone (band)
    B
  9. Which of the following organs is the NEAREST to the right kidney?
    A) Stomach
    B) Colon
    C) Pancreas
    D) Duodenum
    E) Spleen
    B
  10. The prochordal plate consists of
    A) the cardiogenic mesoderm and the neurectoderm.
    B) the cloacal membrane and the overlying amnion.
    C) endoderm of the roof of the yolk sac and embryonic ectoderm
    .D) embryonic endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.
    E) a circular area anterior to the notochord in which the endoderm is fused to the embryonic mesoderm.
    C
  11. Which group of fibers of the periodontal ligament offer the MOSTresistance to movement of the tooth in an apical direction?
    A) Alveolar crest
    B) Apical
    C) Oblique
    D) Horizontal
    E) Interradicular
    C) Oblique resists intrusive movements and rotational forces
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. In the APICAL direction
  13. On a comparative basis, bone and cellular cementum are similar in that both
    A) contain cells in lacunae with canaliculi that extend primarily toward the nutritional source.
    B) are deposited throughout life, acquire blood vessels during aging, and contain similar collagenous fibers.
    C) are difficult to resorb, heal well, and contain cement lines.
    D) contain concentric patterns, have Volkmann's canals, and can be cancellous.
    A
  14. The core of a microvillus consists of which of the following?
    A) Vimentin filaments
    B) Microfilaments
    C) 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules
    D) 9 triplets of microtubules
    E) Intermediate filaments
    B
  15. The blood-testis barrier is maintained by
    A) myoepithelial cells.
    B) spermatogonia.
    C) Leydig cells.
    D) spermatocytes.
    E) Sertoli cells.
    E
  16. Oxyphil cells are present in which of the following?
    A) Fundic stomach
    B) Parathyroid gland
    C) Spleen
    D) Thymus
    E) Neurohypophysis
    D
  17. Which of the following is the nerve that supplies the mimetic muscles?
    A) Facial
    B) Vagus
    C) Spinal accessory
    D) Hypoglossal
    E) Trigeminal
    A) mimetic muscles= facial muscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following is the posterior limit of the vestibular side of the cheek?
    A) Sulcus terminalis
    B) Sphenomandibular ligament
    C) Stylomandibular ligament
    D) Retromolar pad
    E) Pterygomandibular raphe
    E
  19. Para-keratinized oral mucosa is often found on which of the following?
    A) Floor of the mouth
    B) Oral surface of the soft palate
    C) Skin surface of the lips
    D) Attached gingiva
    E) Ventral surface of the tongue
    D) attached gingiva
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following represents a popular theory for the force that is considered to be the MOST responsible for active tooth eruption?
    A) Crestal bone formation pulls the tooth.
    B) Cells and fibers in the developing PDL pull the tooth toward the oral cavity.
    C) Apical fundal bone formation pushes the tooth.
    D) Dentin formation in the root pushes the tooth into the oral cavity.
    E) Vascular pressure within the pulp pushes the tooth intraorally.
    B
  21. Which of the following ligaments helps resist posterior movement of the mandibular condyles?A) Temporomandibular
    B) Anterior cruciate
    C) Sphenomandibular
    D) Stylomandibular
    E) Pterygomandibular raphe
    A)
  22. Which of the following structures runs directly adjacent to, and parallel with, the median nerve in the arm?A) Brachial artery
    B) Ulnar artery
    C) Radial artery
    D) Medial brachial cutaneous nerve
    E) Cephalic vein
    A
  23. Structure of Thymus
    • - made up of lobules held together by areolar tissue
    • - enclosed by capsule
    • - each follicle has:
    • Illu thymus.jpg
    • 1. cortex- mainly lymphoid cells; earliest T cell dev (thymocyte)
    • 2. medulla - Hassall's corpuscle (remains of the epithelial tubes from 3rd branchial pouch)
    • - less lymphoid cells
    • *** Thymus and spleen only have efferent lymphatic vessels

    • 2 origins of thymus:
    • - endoderm (3rd branchial pouch)
    • - hematopoeitic stem cells
  24. Which of the following represents the normal substrate of thrombin?
    A) Thromboplastin
    B) Fibrin
    C) Fibrinogen
    D) Prothrombin
    E) Thrombospondin
    C

    Substrate= the substance on which an enzyme acts

    Prothrombin--> thrombin converts fibrinogen--> fibrin in the clotting cascade
  25. Epinephrine causes an elevation in cAMP levels in muscle cells which in turn activate
    A) ATPase.
    B) glycogen phosphorylase phosphatase.
    C) glycogen synthetase.
    D) adenyl cyclase.
    E) glycogen phosphorylase.
    E) glycogen phosphorylase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which of the following noncollagenous protein components BESTcharacterizes dentin matrix?
    A) Osteonectin
    B) Laminin
    C) Fibronectin
    D) Phosphophoryn
    E) Vimentin
    • D)
    • - one of the proteins formed from dentin sialophosphoprotein
    • - MOST ACIDIC protein ever discovered
    • - aa sequence makes it HIGHLY (-)--> attracts A LOT of Ca2+ for dentin

    • - dentin sialphosphoprotein- only protein produced uniquely by odontoblasts; non collagenous protein broken into:
    • 1. dentin phosphoprotein
    • 2. dentin sialoprotein
    • 3. dentin glycoprotein
  27. Intravenous injections of KCl solution would increase the secretion of which of the following?
    A) Aldosterone
    B) Parathyroid hormone
    C) Calcitonin
    D) Cortisol
    E) Insulin
    A) Aldosterone- uptake of Na+ from DCT of nephron
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. The movement of Ca++ across a membrane is characterized by which of the following?
    A) Maintains Ca++ concentration very much higher in the cell than in the extracellular fluid
    B) A facilitated diffusion
    C) An example of a cotransport system
    D) In many cell membranes involves a Ca++–Na+countertransport system
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of the following is necessary for de novo synthesis of cholesterol?
    A) NADP+
    B) NA+
    C) FADH2
    D) NADH
    E) NADPH
    • E) NAPH (reduced)
    • - used in anabolic processes (steroid and FA synthesis) as a supply of reducing equivalents

    • RLS in synthesis of cholesterol: HMG CoA Reductase
    • -converts HMG-CoA--> mevalonate

    - 2/3 plasma cholesterol is esterified by LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase)
  30. The enzyme catalyzing the rate-controlling step in the de novosynthesis of fatty acids is regulated allosterically by the positive modulator

    A) cyclic AMP.
    B) ATP.
    C) oxaloacetate
    .D) citrate.
    E) NADPH.
    D) citrate

    • - citrate builds up in TCA when have a high E state- want to make FAs when have excess E
    • - citrate also inhibits glycolysis
  31. Which of the following controls the excitability of the muscle spindle?
    A) Gamma efferent system
    B) Alpha efferent discharge
    C) Length of the extrafusal fibers
    D) Load on the muscle
    • A) gammer efferent
    • - stretch reflex
    • - muscle spindle= sensory receptor in belly of extrafusal fibers (muscle)
    • - length of muscle

    • - afferent Ia and II
    • - 3 types of intrafusal fibers:
    • 1. nuclear bag (length and tension)- dynamic fast type Ia
    • 2. nuclear bag- static
    • 3. nuclear chain fibers (length and tension)- slow type II afferent
    • - muscle spindles receive efferent= gamma innervation--> causes shortening of muscle spindle
  32. Under strict anaerobic conditions, the catabolism of one glucose molecule would yield a net of
    A) 2 ATP and 2 lactic acid molecules.
    B) 2 ATP and 2 pyruvic acid molecules.
    C) 4 ATP and 2 pyruvic acid molecules.
    D) 4 ATP and 2 lactic acid molecules.
    A)

    ANAEROBIC- Lactic fermentation:
    - pyruvate converted to lactic acid via LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
    - need to convert NADH--> NAD+ so glycolysis can continue
    - MUSCLE TISSUE (working out) and some BACTERIA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. Which of the following represents a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal cell membranes?

    A) Sialic
    B) Stearic
    C) Linoleic
    D) Oleic
    E) Lactic
    C)

    #C's Common Name
    12Lauric acid
    14Myristic acid
    16Palmitic acid

    Unsaturated- drop in MP
    18Stearic acid
    18 Oleic acid
    18Linoleic acid
    18alpha-linolenic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. GABA increases the permeability of postsynaptic membranes to which of the following ions?
    A) Potassium
    B) Sodium
    C) Magnesium
    D) Calcium
    E) Chloride
    • E) Cl-
    • - most abundant inhibitory NT
  35. Formation of Microfilaments
    • - G-actin= globular actin (individual subunits of actin)
    • - F-actin= G-actin subunits assemble into filamentous polymers
    • - 2 parallel f-actin strands make up a microfilament (of cytoskeleton)
    • - requires ATP to transform G-actin--> f-actin
  36. Which of the following sweeteners is non-nutritive as well as non-cariogenic?
    A) Galactose
    B) Saccharin
    C) D-fructose
    D) Maltose
    E) Sorbitol
    B)

    - artificial sweetener
    - gives no food E
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. If the pH becomes lower than the isoelectric point of a protein, then how will the protein respond in an electrophoretic system? It will
    A) migrate to the positive pole
    .B) separate into its different monomeric forms.
    C) remain stationary and unchanged.
    D) migrate to the negative pole.
    E) become denatured.
    D)

    IP= pH at which the protein is neutral
  38. Sodium fluoride inhibits glycolysis by affecting which of the following?
    A) Phosphorylase
    B) Enolase
    C) Amylase
    D) Phosphatase
    B) enolase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Insulin INCREASES the activity of which of the following?
    A) Phosphofructokinase
    B) Glucose-6-phosphatase
    C) Phosphorylase a
    D) Fructose 1-6 diphosphatase
    E) Enolase
    A

    - high E state, insulin stimulates synthesis of ATP from glucose
  40. When arterial pressure increases, pressoreceptors discharge and
    A) cause vasoconstriction throughout the peripheral circulatory system.
    B) excite sympathetic nerves and inhibit parasympathetic nerves.
    C) inhibit tonic activity of sympathetic nerves and excite parasympathetic nerves.
    D) increase cardiac rate and strength of contraction.
    C
  41. The level of nonprotein nitrogen in the blood is due principally to the level of which of the following?A) Arginine
    B) Creatine
    C) Uric acid
    D) Ammonia
    E) Urea

    After prolonged acidosis, which of the following represents the nitrogenous product that is excreted in high amounts in the urine?
    A) Aspartic acid
    B) Creatinine
    C) Urea
    D) Uric acid
    E) Ammonia
    • E) Urea
    • E) ammonia
  42. Which of the following are the immediate effects of calcitonin on serum levels of calcium and phosphate?A) Serum calcium decreases, Serum phosphate has no change
    B) Serum calcium has no change, Serum phosphate increases
    C) Serum calcium increases, Serum phosphate increases
    D) Serum calcium decreases, Serum phosphate decreases
    E) Serum calcium increases, Serum phosphate decreases
    D) calcium and phosphate are put back into bone
  43. Most endogenous cholesterol in the liver is usually converted into which of the following?
    A) Oxaloacetate
    B) Glucose
    C) Cholic acid
    D) Ketone bodies
    E) Steroids
    C) Cholic acid

    cholic acid= bile acid
    - produced by liver from cholesterol
    - derivatives are made from cholyl-CoA which forms a conjugate with either glycine, or taurine, yielding glycocholic and taurocholic acid respectively.
    - Cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid are the most important human bile acids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The ability to concentrate urine varies among animal species. The maximum urine concentration that can be produced by an animal isMOST closely related to which of the following?
    A) Glomerular filtration rate
    B) Diameter of the distal tubule
    C) Renal blood flow
    D) Total number of nephrons
    E) Length of the loop of Henle
    E)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. In relative insulin insufficiency, acetyl CoA is usually channeled into
    A) gluconeogenesis.
    B) the Krebs cycle.
    C) ketone-body formation.
    D) cholesterol synthesis.
    E) fatty-acid synthesis.
    • C)
    • - insulin insufficiency indicates a post-absorptive state (low serum glucose)
    • - Diabetes pts- low insulin--> get diabetic ketoacidosis bc form ketone bodies for E

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