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What does Avoid stand for?
Airborne Volcanic object Identifier and Detector
How does Avoid work?
It uses infrared technology to create a real time map of the ash particles in the atmosphere.
How many easyJet aircraft are fitted with the new coating for trial?
How much weight is added to the aircraft by the new coating?
According to easyJet, how much will the fuel efficiency increase with the new coating?
up to 2%
What are the 2 different types of drag?
Parasite and Induced drag
Describe Induced drag.
Induced drag is the result of lift. Wingtip vortices modify up wash and downwash in the vicinity of the wing which produces a rearward component to the lift vector known as induced drag. The lower the IAS, the higher the AOA � the stronger the vortices, the greater the induced drag. Factors that affect induced drag are; the size of the lift force, the speed of the aircraft, the aspect ratio of the wing.
Describe Parasite drag.
Parasite drag is independent of lift generation and is subdivided into: Skin friction drag, Form (pressure) drag, Interference drag. Parasite drag varies directly with the square of the IAS. Factors affecting parasite drag are: IAS, Configuration and Airframe contamination. Parasite drag varies directly in proportion to the frontal area presented to the airflow (flaps, gear etc..). Contamination by ice, snow, mud or slush will increase the parasite drag coefficient.
Why do modern jet aircraft have such large all moving horizontal tail planes?
- - To provide a balancing force for large CG ranges (due to fuel consumption)
- - To provide a balancing force for a large speed range
- - To minimise the drag, since the aerofoil is more streamlined
- - To cope with large trim changes as a result of position changes to the wing leading and trailing edge high lift devices.
- - Trimming does not reduce the range of pitch control, as the elevator is approximately neutral when the aircraft is trimmed.
Why are swept wings used?
To increase Mcrit.
How does wing sweep help speed and C of G ranges?
Mcrit depends on the airspeed vector perpendicular tot he leading edge. Because sweep shortens this vector, the airspeed can be raised before reaching Mcrit.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of swept back wings?
- High Mach cruise speeds
- Stability in turbulence
- Poor lift qualities
- Higher stall speeds
- Speed instability below Vmd
- A wingtip stalling tendency
What are the aerodynamic consequences of having under-wing mounted engines?
A pitch up moment when adding thrust, delaying wing flutter to a higher speed, Pylons can acts as fences to minimise spanwise flow at high angles of attack.
How does having underwing mounted engines effect the airflow over the wing?
At high angles of attack the airflow over the wing, influenced by pod mounted engines, can acts as a fence, thereby reducing spanwise flow.
What are slats/ slots and Why are they used?
A slat is a auxiliary aerofoil attached to the leading edge of the wing. Leading edge slats increase the wing�s chamber area and Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC), thereby increasing it�s lift coefficient and reduce the stall speed. When deployed, the slat forms a slot which allows the passage of air from the high pressure region below the wing to the low pressure region above. Additional kinetic energy is added to the airflow. It reenergizes the boundary layer and thereby delaying boundary layer separation to a much higher AOA.
What is Dutch Roll and how is it caused?
Dutch roll is an oscillatory instability associated with swept wing jets. It is a combination of yawing and rolling. When a yaw is induced the strong dihedral effect will role the aircraft due to the lift increase on the wing into wind. The increased induced drag on the rising wing will yaw the aircraft in the opposite direction, reversing the coupled oscillation.
What are the functions of a yaw damper?
The yaw damper is a device to counter Dutch Roll and coordinate turns. This automatically displaces the rudder proportional to the rate of yaw to damp out the oscillations.
What is Vmca?
Vmca is the CAS, at which, directional control can be maintained in the air with the critical engine inoperative, with a maximum angle of bank of not more than 5 degrees.
What is Cmcg?
Vmcg is the CAS during the rake off run at which it is possible to maintain directional control on the ground, in the event of a failure of the critical engine, without the use of nose wheel steering (primary aerodynamic controls alone) to enable the take off to be safely continued using normal piloting skills.
What is Mcrit, and why is it a problem flying faster?
- Mcrit is the free stream mach number at which the local velocity first reaches Mach 1 (sonic). (Usually the point with thickest chamber).
- At speeds, faster than Mcrit:
- - Increase in drag (because of airflow separation)
- - Initial Mach buffer (caused by the shock waves on the upper surface of the wing)
- - A nose down change in attitude (mach tuck)
What is mach tuck, why and how do we prevent from happening?
- Mach tuck is the nose down pitching moment an aircraft experiences as it passes its critical Mach number (Mcrit). It is cause by the rearward movement of the center of pressure.
- Mach tuck is prevented by a Mach trimmer. This is a device that corrects for Mach tuck by sensing the aircraft�s speed and signalling a proportional upward movement of the elevator or variable incidence stabilizer to maintain the aircraft�s pitch attitude.
What is a vortex generator?
A vortex generator is a small aerofoil which creates a vortex at its tip. This induces high energy air from the free stream flow to mix with the boundary layer.
Why are Vortex generators used?
They are used to prevent span wise flow (delay flow separation), and to maximize effectiveness of control surfaces (such as ailerons)
Other than a wing where else might Vortex generators be used?
Other than the wing they might be used on the engines to redirect the airflow on the downside of the wing (wing mounted engines) and APU inlet.
Why would you have vortex generators in front of an APU inlet?
Because the inlet requires high density air and of a slower velocity. Vortex generators disturb the airflow, generating a denser and of a slower velocity airflow.
What happens if you move the throttle?
Pitch up moment, because the thrust line is below the CG
Difference between flap 30 and flap 40
Flaps 40 will decrease the approach speed, and thereby decrease the landing run. Also better visibility because of lower attitude.
Why would we have bleed valves on the engine?
- 1. To provide bleed air for auxiliary systems
- 2. To regulate the correct airflow pressures between different engine sections.
When does a cross bleed air start happen?
During inflight restarting of an engine and on the ground when APU is not available. Extra precautions must be taken care of with a crossbleed air start on the ground, because the required rpm on the running engine must be higher than idle.
List the uses of bleed air
- � Pressurisation
- � Air conditioning
- � Engine and airframe anti icing
- � Engine start
Explain how bleed air is used in the water system in the toilets of a modern jet?
Bleed air is used to supply pressurized air to the potable water system. The pressurized air moves the potable water tank to the galleys and lavatories. The pressure for the potable water system is between 25psi and 28psi.
How does a Jet engine work?
By forcing incoming/ take in air into a tube, where the air is compressed, mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted at high speed to generate thrust.
What is the difference between a turbofans and turbojet engine?
Most components remain the same in a turbofan and turbojet engine, but the turbofan engine introduces a fan section in front of the compressors. This fan is also turbine driven but it�s primary purpose is to force a large volume of air through outer ducts that go around the engine core. This large mass of air that is accelerated by the fan produces a significant thrust without burning any additional fuel.
What is the difference between a gas turbine and a jet engine?
A jet engine is an engine which has no rotating parts, but works on ram air. It is therefore not suitable for aircraft since it cannot generate thrust at low speeds. A gas turbine engine incorporates compressors, driven by turbines.
How are the turbine blades cooled?
- By 3 ways:
- 1. Convection cooling; by passing cooling air through passages internal to the blade
- 2. Film cooling; by pumping cool air out of the blade through small holes. The air creates a thin layer on the blade of cool air protecting it to the high temperatures.
- 3. Transpiration cooling; It creates a thin film of cooling air on the blade by leaking through a porous shell
How does Convection cooling work?
by passing cooling air through passages internal to the blade.
How does film cooling work?
by pumping cool air out of the blade through small holes. The air creates a thin layer on the blade of cool air protecting it to the high temperatures.
How does Transpiration cooling work?
It creates a thin film of cooling air on the blade by leaking through a porous shell.
What are the possible advantages of a high bypass engine?
Fuel efficient, improves propulsive efficiency and quieter
What produces the majority of the thrust
The bypass air
What could be the possible uses of filtering hot air from the engines? (bleed air)
- Pressurisation (cabin, pneumatic devices, wayer system)
- Air conditioning
- Engine and airframe anti icing (engine intakes, slats 3,4,5)
- Engine start
Why pressurise the hydraulic system?
To prevent pump cavitation
What kind of engine does a Seneca have?
A six cylinder, horizontally opposed, direct driven, Fuel injected, Air cooled, turbocharged, wet sump oil system, 200 Rated HP
What differences do we have when mounting engines under the wing instead of at the aft fuselage?
- - Intake efficiency is rarely compromised by interference flows
- - The engines provide bending relief, thus reducing wing structure weight
- - At high incidence the pylons tend to act in a way similar to fences by controlling span wise flow
- - Good engine accessibility
- - Unless the engines are mounted well inboard the asymmetric yawing moment following failure is high, so this demands good rudder control
- - Roll freedom on the ground is limited.
- - A low thrust line can have an adverse effect on longitudinal control
- - Low mounted engines encourage ingestion from the runway surface. (FOD damage)
What de-ice/ anti-ice equipment does the Seneca have?
- Anti icing: Windscreen defroster
- Heated lift detectors
- Heated pitot head
- De icing: Pneumatic de-icing boots on the wing, tailplane, fin
- Windscreen de-icing fluid spray
- Electro thermal propeller pads
What de-ice/ anti-ice equipment does the A320 have?
- The ice and rain protection system lets the aircraft operate normally in ice conditions or heavy rain. Ice protection is given by the use of hot air, or electrical power, to make the necessary areas of the aircraft hot.
- The areas that hot air supplies are:
- - The leading edge of the slats 3,4 and 5 on each wing
- - The engine air intakes
- The engine bleed air system supplies the hot air to the anti-ice system.
- The items with electrical heaters are:
- - Cockpit windshield and side windows
- - The Total Air Temperature (TAT) probe
- - Angle of attack probes
- - The pitot and static probes
- - The waste water drain masts
- Rain is removed from the windshield with windshield wipers.
What navigation equipment does the Seneca have?
VOR, DME, ADF, ILS, GPS
What is the range and endurance and cruise speed of a Seneca?
- Cruise speed: 140 kts
- Useable fuel: 93 us gal (standard) 123 (additional tanks)
- Range: 630 nm (standard) 840 nm (additional tanks)
- endurance: 4,5 hrs (standard) 6 hrs (additional tanks)
Fly by wire � what are the advantages/ disadvantages?
- Advantages: Flight envelope protection
- Easier maintenance
- Disadvantages Computers
How long does it take for an IRS to align in the A320?
What sort of flaps does the airbus have?
- Fowlerflaps (it moves rearward and then down)
- It increases the wing area and then the camber and may be slotted. The change in pitch moment is usually greater because of the rearward extension of the chord.
What is the difference between a 737/ a320?
The A320 is fly by wire.
Do our aircraft have de-icing equipment on the tail?
Do you know the time and distance separation minima?
- H-H 4 -
- H-M 5 2
- H-L 6 3
- M-H 3 -
- M-M 3 -
- M-L 5 3
- * n.b. aircraft with same wake cat. 1 minute seperation
Relating to wake turbulence what is the separation distance required for a medium jet approaching/landing after another medium jet?
Relating to wake turbulence what is the separation distance required for a heavy jet approaching/landing after heavy jet?
Relating to wake turbulence what is the separation distance required for a medium jet approaching/landing after heavy jet?
5 nm/ 2 minutes
Relating to wake turbulence what is the separation distance required for a light jet approaching/landing after heavy jet?
6 nm/ 3 minutes
Relating to wake turbulence what is the separation distance required for a heavy jet approaching/landing after medium jet?
Relating to wake turbulence what is the separation distance required for a light jet approaching/landing after medium jet?
5 nm/ 3 minutes
What is RVSM?
It is the reduction of the standard vertical separation minima of 2000 ft between FL290 and FL410 to 1000 feet.
What is the squawk code for a hijcack?
What is the squawk code for an emergency
What is the squawk code for a radio failure?
How do you calculate the TOD?
- The calculated distance required to accelerate to Vr, and to climb to the screen height, factored by 15%
- Hoogte/1000 x 3 +1 nm per 10kts
If you don�t have enough track miles, how do you solve that problem?
request delaying track miles, request the amount of track miles needed, use speed brake in the descent, add additional drag (use gear or flaps).
Why would we circle to land, why not just fly straight in?
To bring the aircraft into position for landing on a runway not suitably located for a straight in approach.
Describe the four climb segments.
- 1st: Begins at 35� over the runway (screen height) to the point where the gear is fully retracted. Positive climb gradient
- 2nd: Begins at gear up and terminates at minimum flap retraction altitude. Climb gradient 2,4% (could be at 400� depending on procedures)
- 3rd : Starts at flap retraction and ends with flaps retracted. Climb gradient: 1,2%
- 4th : Starts with enroute configuration reached, ends at 1500 ft over runway elevation. Climb gradient 1,2%
What are the stages of a thunderstorm?
- 1. Developing stage; Updrafts move air aloft, allowing condensation to take place throughout the ascent of the convective currents
- 2. Mature stage; The most hazardous stage of a thunderstorm. The dangers include; torrential rain, hail, severe turbulence, severe icing, winds hear, microburst�s, lightning. Downdraughts and up draughts.
- 3. Decaying stage; The final stage of a TS. Still winds hear danger.
How can you tell a thunderstorm is in its dissipating stage?
No more continuous rain, but sporadic showers, sometimes as virga due to a temperature inversion beneath the cloud base, which can cause a marked windshear.
What is the Dew Point?
Dew point is the temperature at which a parcel of air becomes saturated. It�s capacity to hold water vapour is equal to that which it is actually holding. It�s relative humidity is 100%.
What is virga?
Virga is rain that falls from the base of a cloud and evaporates at a lower altitude in drier warmer air before it reaches the ground. This is a sign of a temperature inversion, which in turn is an indication of possible windshear.
What is a microburst?
a severe concentrated downdraft, or a vertical wind, emanating from the base of a mature CB, with high speeds and a lower temperature than the surrounding air.
From TAF/METAR BR, GR and FU
- BR = mist
- GR = Hail
- FU = Fumes
Tell me about adiabatic lapse rates, what are they? What are the assumed values?
- SALR DALR ELR
- ELR is the rate of temperature change with height of the surrounding atmosphere. The ISA assumes an ELR of 2C per 1000ft of height/ altitude gained. The actual ELR may differ greatly from this; in fact it can be zero (isothermal layer) or negative (inversion).
- DALR is the adiabatic temperature change for unsaturated air as it rises. Unsaturated air is known as dry air and it�s change in temperature is a rather regular drop of 3C per 1000ft height/ altitude gained.
- SALR is the adiabatic change in temperature for saturated air, as it rises. The SALR commences at a height where a parcel of air�s temperature is reduced to its dew point temperature, 100% relative humidity, and its water starts to condense out to form cloud. Above this height, the now saturated air will continue to cool as it rises, but because it releases latent heat as the water vapour condenses to a liquid form, i.e. clouds, its cooling rate is reduced to a rather regular drop of 1,5C per 1000ft height/ altitude gained.
What is the Foehn wind?
- The fohn wind is a dry down-slope wind that occurs on the lee side (downwind) of a mountain range. It can be seen in the Alps.
- Air is cooled as it is forced to rise over high ground, first at the DALR and then, after the dewpoint level is reached, at the SALR. After the dewpoint clouds will be formed and moisture will be lost, in the form rain or dew.
- As the air descend over the far side of the hill, it has a lower water content and so the dewpoint level is higher. A longer period of warming at the DALR means that the air on the far (downwind) side of the hills is warmer and dryer than it was on the upwind side of the hill.
- The fohn effect can influence the wind direction and strength and in some cases even generate a wind that blows down the far/lee side of the hill.
What would you do if you flew into unexpected weather?
Make sure the aircraft is under control, check for icing conditions, check for turbulence (wx radar), and if needed turn 180 degrees, check up to date information with ATC.
What does CAVOK mean?
- 1. Visibility equal or greater than 10km
- 2. No clouds below 5000� or below the highest MSA, whichever is the greater, and no CB
- 3. No precipitation, thunderstorms, shallow fog or low drifting snow.
- N.B. It does not mean clear blue skies!
What does the FAP signify?
The fix or point on an instrument approach procedure where the final approach segment commences.
How far does the MSA area cover?
When would you go around during an approach?
MDA/ DA/ Half scale deflection/ Unstable at 1000�/ not properly configured/ checklist not done
Obviously fuel is a huge cost to an airline, how would you help use less fuel?
- 1. Take only the fuel needed
- 2. Fly as much as possible at the optimum altitude
- 3. Request for shortcuts/ shorter routing
- 4. Careful planning
- 5. Not too early/ not too late start configuration (flaps, gear etc..)
- 6. Minimize the use of APU
- 7. Continuous descent approaches
- 8. Taxi on one engine
You fly at FL300, where is your TOD when you approach Gatwick?
What is the airspeed and what is the approach speed? Alt/1000 x 3 + 1 mile every 10 kts.
What is the effect of weight on your descent?
Weight does not affect the glide angle because it is lift/ drag ratio that determines the glide angle, provided that the correct airspeed is flown. The only effect weight has is the time it takes to descent. So the heavier the weight, the higher the gliding airspeed, the faster the descent. So if two aircraft with the same L/D ratio, one heavier than the other are to start the descent on the same point, the heavier aircraft will reach it�s destination sooner than the lighter, but cover the same distance.
Engine fire drill and who do you inform
(wanted to hear cabin crew after ATC) (boeing SOP is fine) AVIATE, NAVIGATE, COMMUNICATE!
You are on your way from Malaga to Gatwick; cpt not responding and not feeling well; what do you do?
Switch on the autopilot if not switched on yet, to reduce workload, make sure the flightpath is under control, get a cabin crew member to strap the captain in his chair, so not to influence the flight controls, make a panpan medical call, check if a doctor is onboard, get the latest weather for any airfields in the vicinity and check for familiar airports, inform the cabin and company, divert
How long are the red and lights on the runway?
900 m total; 600m red/white 300m red.
What are you strengths and weaknesses?
- Strengths: - Punctual
- - Enthusiastic
- - Loyal
- Weaknesses: - Over enthusiastic
- - Too high demanding
- - Work too much
What do you feel about working unsociable hours?
I am totally fine with that and actually enjoy working variable hours. I am currently working for KLM�s department of line maintenance and we are working in three shifts. I enjoy the evening and nightshifts because it gives you plenty of time to do some work at home and the day shifts start early, but end early as well, which gives you enough time to socialize.
What makes you a good first officer?
I am a social, punctual and enthusiastic person who always tries to create a good atmosphere in a team and create a common goal.
Why did you choose OAA/ EPST? Did you look at any other schools?
I did look at other schools, but after careful consideration and advice from other pilots and students, I chose for EPST and OAA. This was mainly because of the good reputation of both schools, the good job placement records and the training abroad. This gave me the opportunity to fully concentrate on my training without the distractions of friends, family and my girlfriend. It also gave me the opportunity to improve my English.
Who is the CEO of easyJet?
When did Carolyn McCall start this job?
01 July 2010
How is Carolyn McCall doing?
Her first big achievement was that she sorted out the brand licensing deal with Stelios.
Roughly how many routes does EZY have?
Roughly how many planes does EZY have and what types?
How much flight crew do you think is employed by EZY?
1900 pilots, 4300 cabin crew
Largest 3 bases?
London Gatwick, Milan Malpensa and London Luton
Where is company headquarters located?
London Luton, Hanger 89
What do you think are easyJet�s strengths?
- easyJet flies mainly to primary airports.
- Pioneering sales and other business and efficient opportunities.
- Very familiar and distinctive style (livery, internet etc..)
If you had to choose one thing about easyJet that draws you to the company, what would it be?
Company culture � open, flat and informal structure.
How has easyJet set itself apart from other (low cost) airlines?
By pioneering the use of internet, the nanotechnology coating and avoid radar, by mainly flying to primary airports instead of secondary.
What would your preferred base be?
I am prepared to take any base, but if I had to choose I�d say Gatwick, Miland or Madrid.
What is the easyJet ethos ?
To make flying as affordable as a pair of jeans and available to everyone.
What are the easyJet core values?
Safety, Teamwork, pioneering, passionate, integrity
How can Vmcg/a be changed?
By change of CofG and reduced thrust.
Explain how Vmcg/a is reduced by change of Center of Gravity.
- By changing the C of G. The turning moment acts around the center of gravity. A forward center CofG will have a longer arm, and therefore, the vertical tailplane turning moment is greater for a given speed, and thus the aircraft can have a lower Vmcg/a.
- Turning moment = rudder to center of gravity arm x speed (Vmcg/a)
- So; CofG aft = higher Vmcg/a and CofG fwd lower Vmca/g
Explain how Vmcg is changed by reduced thrust.
With reduced take of thrust (only Vmcg!). The rudder turning moment is used to oppose/ balance the assymetrical thrust yawing moment to maintain directional control. Therefore, by reducing thrust, any off center engine loss during the takeoff run has a reduced assymetrical thrust imbalance, which thereby reduces the yawing moment to maintain directional control. Because the magnitude of the tailplane turning moment is a product of airspeed, a lower (Vmcg) groundspeed maintains the aircraft�s directional control.
Why are the turbine blades shrouded?
To minimise losses due to leakage across the turbine blade tips and reduce vibration.
By which process are turbine blades produced today?
single crystal casting
How does single crystal casting work?
single crystal material forms as only one grain in the mould, eliminating corrosion and creating an extremely creep resistant blade.
Which force keeps the turbine blades in place?
What limits the thrust?
the maximum temperature that the turbine can withstand.
How is the temperature measured in the turbine?
Where are thermocouples placed?
Inside the fixed nozzle guide vanes after the high or low pressure tubrine.
What has been the most difficult situation you have experienced?
Give us an example of when you had to think outside the box?
Have you ever led a team?
2Contact, tourmanagement SilvaScreen, bandjes
When in a team, how do you motivate others?
SilvaScreen voorbeeld; positieve feedback, enthousiasme, coaching, incentives
Tell me about a time when you needed to motivate team members?
How do you deal with conflict?
Praten, gedachtegang uitleggen, overleggen compromissen sluiten.
When have you not agreed on a decision made and how did you deal with that?
SilvaScreen Dick le Mair, Wel/niet/wel expeditie KLM
Describe a time when you have had to let a member of a team down.
Carp voorbeeld, optreden met Kim-Lian
Tell me when you were the leader of a team and had to make an unpopular decision. What happened, who was involved, what were the potential implications for not making that decision, how were they affected, outcome?
Liset voorbeeld Nijmeegse 4 daagse.
Describe a time when you have to had to tell someone bad news.
Ontslag bij 2Contact/ einde proefperiode
Describe a time when you have gone above and beyond for customer service.
- Kim ophalen in La Chapelle en brengen naar Hilversum en terug
- Kim brengen naar Antwerpen 5 dagen achter elkaar.
Have you ever bent or not obeyed the rules?
Ben afscheids feestje
When have you felt it was a better course of action to break the rule/law than it was to abide by them?
Afscheids feestje Ben
Describe a moment where you were at the maximum of your stress level.
When have you performed in a team where you were not the leader
Describe a time in my life when I have had to work to a tight deadline.
Opnemen in studio Liset
When have you dealt with conflict?
Jesse Spencer Goodyear
Tell me about a time when you had to work to a fixed deadline, under additional pressure, and achieve 100%.
Describe a time when you have been unhappy with a work colleague.
Give me an example of when you have had to change work plans at the last minute. What was your reaction, what happened, what was the outcome?
Kim ophalen in La Chapelle en brengen naar Hilversum en terug
Give me an example of when you have taken charge of a situation to achieve a positive result. What difficulties or conflicts did you encounter and how did you overcome these?
MLC KLM E&M XMN MD11
When have you felt it was a better course of action to break the rule/law than it was to abide by them?
Afscheids feestje Ben
What exactly set Oxford apart from other schools?
Reputation, studieing abroad, good placement records.
What was your high/low moment at Oxford?
- High: Night flight valley ralley.
- Low: Problems with instructor (no flying)
Tell me something about the last couple of years of your life.
Opleiding, werken bij KLM, current blijven door oefenen EPST.
Why do we have an altitude check on the ILS?
To check correct QNH setting on altimeter, To check if the correct lobe has been captured, to check if the altimeter is properly working
Background on me and why I want to be a pilot
Aangestoken door neef, muziek industrie in gewerkt, toch piloot willen worden.
Why do you want to be a pilot?
I want to be a pilot for a couple of reasons; the view, it�s a perfect mix between technical, commercial and social aspects, seeing the world, travelling.
Why do you like flying?
I like to see the world passing by underneath you, I like the mix that flying brings between technical knowledge, commercial aspects and social aspects. It�s a great feeling to be very busy with flying the aircraft, checking weather, checking fuel status, making decisions, listening and talking to ATC, and be able to land the aircraft safely on the arrival aerodrome.
Why do you want to work for easyJet?
What attracts me the most to easyJet is the open, flat and informal company culture, I want to work for a company that is striving to find new ways to improve their business,improve safety and efficiency, the new aircraft, the route structur and the growth the airline is experiencing.
Describe a time when you have had to make an instant decision and it was the wrong decision.
Give me an example of when you were in a team and you had to motivate the fellow team members and step up to the lead.
SilvaScreen eerste jaar crisis.
What do you think of the flexi crew contract?
It would have my preference not having to pay for the type training, but it is the reality today that most airlines are using these kind of programs to lower their training expenses. It also enables the company to filter out people who aren�t really motivated and dedicated to join the company. easyJet and it�s values and company policy really appeals to me, so if I did have to sponsor my own type training I wouldrather do that for easyJet than any other company.
Why does a swept back wing stall at the wing tip first?
This is due to the induced spanwise flow of the boundary layer from root to tip.
Which design features can be incorporated to reduce the wing tip stalling tendency?
Wing fences, Vortilons, saw tooth, vortex generators , pod mounted engines
What happens to the CP with a wing tip stall?
The CP moves forward giving a nose up pitching moment.
What does a vortex generator do?
They generate a small vortex which causes the free stream flow of high energy air to mix with and add kinetic energy to the boundary layer. This re-energises the boundary layer and tends to delay seperation.
What could be visual clues of windshear?
- - Virga
- - Rising dust or sand
- - Divergent wind sleeves or smoke
- - Divergent wind patterns indicated by grass, crops or trees
What are the four control laws of the Airbus?
Normal law, Alternate law, Direct law and Mechanical law.
What are the modes in Normal law on the Airbus?
Ground mode, Flight mode, flare mode.
When does Flight mode take over Ground mode in the Airbus control law?
When is flight mode active in the normal control law on the Airbus?
From takeoff to 100' radio altimeter altitude.
When is flare mode engaged in the airbus?
Automatically when the radio altimeter indicates 100ft
What protections does Alternate law 1 have?
It combines a normal law lateral mode with the load factor and bank angle protections retained.
When may Alternate 1 law be entered?
When there are faultsin the horizontal stablilizer, elevator, yaw damper, slat or flap sensor or a single air data reference fault.
What protections does Alternate law 2 have?
Load factor protection, high angle of attack and high speed protections (unless the two air data references failed or the remaining air data references disagree)
When may Alternate 2 law be entered?
When 2 engines flame out, faults in two air data reference units, spoilers fault)
When did easyJet buy 40% of TEA Basel AG?
When did easyJet purchase low-cost airline Go?
When did easyJet complete acquisition of GB Airways?
What was the total revenue of easyJet in 2010?
2.973,1 Million pounds
How much percent was easyJet's revenue up in 2010 compared to 2009?
How many passengers were flown by easyJet in 2010?
How much percent was the total passengers number up in 2010 compared to 2009?
What is the function of turbine blades?
They extract energy from the high temperature, high pressure gas produced by the combuster and compressor.
What is often the limiting factor in gas turbine engines?
The turbine blades.
What is a fly-by-wire system?
A FBW system is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.
Explain a fly by wire system?
When the pilot moves the control colum or side stick, a signal is sent to an computer. this signal is sent through multiple channels (wires) to ensure that the signal reaches the computer. The computer receives the signals and performs a calculation and adds another channel. These signals are sent to the control surface actuator and the surface begins to move. Potentiometers send a signal back to the computer reporting the position of the actuator. When the actuator reaches the desired position, the two signals (incoming and outgoing cancel each other out and the actuator stops moving.
Can the flight envelope protection be overridden or disabled in the Airbus?
No, bu tthe crew can fly beyond flight envelope limits by selecting an alternate ' control law'
What is the purpose of a FADEC system?
To provide optimum engine efficiency for a given flight condition.
What are the advantages of FADEC?
- - Better fuel efficiency
- - Automatic engine protection against out of tolerance operations
- - Care-free engine handling, with guaranteed thrust settings
- - Reduces the number of parameters to be monitored by flight crew
What are disadvantages of FADEC?
- - No manually override possible
- - High system complexity
- - High system development and validation effort due to the complexity
How large is a microburst generally?
How long does a microburst last?
About 5 minutes
When are microburst more likely to occur?
In summer air mass thunderstorms in low latitude regions where surface conditions are dry.
What are the requierements for the formation of a thunderstorm?
An adequate supply of moisture, conditional instability and a lifting action
What does ECAm stand for?
Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor
What is an advantage of ECAM over EICAS?
ECAM provides the same features as EICAS, but in addittion also displays corrective actions to be taken by the pilot and system limitations after the failure.
What was the 75:25 rule in the brand licence agreement between easyJet and easyGroup?
The rule provides that no less than 75% of the company's reveue is to be derived from core activity which relates to transporting passengers in aeroplanes.
When was the brand licence established?
It was signed in november 2000
What are the main features of the new brand licencesing agreement?
- - Worldwide exclusive licence to operate flights under an AOC under the easyJet brand name
- - Royalty payment of 0.25% of total revenues (fixed in 2011: 3.9 million pounds and 2012 4.95 million pounds)
- - Fifty year agreement
What are some of the benefits for easyJet of the new brand licencing deal?
- - Removal of the 75:25 rule easyJet is able to offer largely unrestricted activities within airports and aircraft.
- - Greater freedom for easyJet to operate and generate revenue as an airline
What is the IATA Code for easyJet?
What is the ICAO code for easyJet?
What is the callsign for easyJet flights?
What happens to the B737-700 aircraft in the easyJet fleet?
Will be phased out by late 2011
What are the five easyJet values?
- 1. Saftey
- 2. Teamwork
- 3. Pioneering
- 4. Passionate
- 5. Integrity
Where is the headquarter of easyJet based?
Luton, England (hangar 89)
In which hangar is easyJet's headquarter baseds?
Hangar 89 in Luton
When was easyJet founded?
1995 by Sir Stelios Haji-Loannou
Who founded easyJet?
Sir Stelios Haji-Loannou
Who is the current CEO of easyJet?
On which stock exchange is easyJet listed?
The London Stock Exchange
What was the first international destination for easyJet?
Amsterdam in april 1996.
What were the first two destinations flown by easyJet?
Glasgow and Edinburgh from Luton.
What are the three largest easyJet bases?
London Gatwick, Milan Malpensa, London Luton
What is the difference between Ryanair and easyJet?
easyJet flies mainly to primary airports, while Ryanair flies to secundary airports.
What aircraft does easyJet have in its fleet?
A319-100, A320-200, B737-700 (will be phased out in 2011)
WHat kind of engines does the Airbus have?
Why do the easyJet A319 ahve two pairs of overwing exits, instead of the standard one pair?
Because a typical A319 carries 140 seats, easyJet configured the aircraft with smaller galleys, which allowd it to seat 156 seats.
When was the first flight of the A320?
22 february 1987
What kind of engines does the Airbus have?
Turbofan engines of CFM International (CFM56-5B)
What is easyJet's mission?
To provide our customers with safe, good value, point-to-point air services.
What is easyJet's largest base?
Why use slats/ slots?
Additional kinetic energy is added to the airflow. It reenergizes the boundary layer and thereby delaying boundary layer separation to a much higher AOA.
What is the pressure in the hydraulic system?
How many engines does the PA-34 200T have?
What type of engine does the Pa-34 have?
Six cylinder, Direct driven, Horizontally opposed, Fuel injected, air cooled, turbo charged
Who is the manufacturer of the engine used on the PA-34?
What is the engine model number of the engines used on the PA-34?
TSIO-360E (EB)/ LTSIO-360E (EB)
How many rated horse power are the engines on the PA-34?
At sea level 200 HP, above 12000 ft 215 HP
What is the compression ratio of the engines on the PA-34?
What kind of propellors on the PA-34?
Hartzell or McCauley
How many blades does the Hartzell propellor have?
How many blades does the McCauley propellor have?
What type of propellors does the PA-34 have?
Constant speed, Hydraulically actuated, Full feathering
What is the fuel capacity on the PA-34
98 U.S. Gal
What is the useable fuel onthe PA-34?
93 U.S. Gal
What is the oil capacity on the PA-34?
8 U.S. Quarts
What is the minimum oil quantity for flight on the PA-34?
What is the maximum take-off weight for the PA-34?
What is the maximum landing weight?
What is Vne on the PA-34?
What is Vno on the PA-34?
What is Vfe on the PA-34?
What is Vmc on the PA-34?
What is Vle on the PA-34?
What is the green arc speed on the PA-34?
63 - 163
What is the yellow arc speed on the PA-34?
163 - 195
What is the white arc speed on the PA-34?
61 - 107
What is the blue line speed on the PA-34? (best rate of climb single engine)
Is flight into icing conditions allowed on the PA-34?
- Yes, when fitted with:
- - Pneumatic Wing and empenage boots
- - Electro-thermal propellor boots
- - Electric windshield panel
- - heated pitot head
- - Wing ice ligt
- - Heated lift detectors
- - Propellor spinners must be installed
Up to what altitude is flight with the Pa-34 approved
Up to 25000 ft when equipped with supplemental oxygen
What material is used to construct the airframe of the PA-34?
What kind of design is used on the fuselage of the PA-34?
What kind of wing design has the PA-34?
conventional wing design
How are the flaps operated on the PA-34?
Mechanically by a handle located between the two front seats
In what direction does the propellor of the left engine rotate?
In what direction does the propellor of the right engine rotate?
Tell something about the engines on the PA-34?
The engines are air-cooled, fuel injected and are equipped with oil coolers, a low temperature by pass system and engine mounted oil filters.
What kind of trim tab does the PA-34 have on the stabilator?
anti servo trim tab.
Why does the stabilator have an anti servo trim tab on the PA-34?
To improve longitudinal stability and provide longitudinal trim.
In which direction, compared to the stabilator does the trim tab on the PA-34 move?
In the same direction as the stabilator, but with increased level.
How is rudder effectiveness increased on the PA-34?
By an anti servo tab on the rudder.
How is assymetric thrust during take off and the climb eliminated on the PA-34?
By counter rotating engines.
What type of fuel injection system does the PA-34 have?
What is the critical engine ont he PA-34?
There is none, due to the counter rotating propellors.
What kind of landing gear has the PA-34?
A hydraulically operated, fully retractable tricycle landing gear.
What kind of brakes does the PA-34 have?
2 single disc, double puck brake assemblies.
What kind of ailerons are fitted to the PA-34?
Ailerons of the ' frise' type
How are the flaps on the PA-34 operated?
Which flap positions does the PA-34 have?
10 degrees, 25 degrees, 40 degrees.
What kind of altenators does the PA-34 have?
Two 65 Amp altenators (one on each engine)
What kind of battery does the PA-34 have?
A 35 ampere, 12 Volt battery
The take-off distance available is:
the length of the take-off run available plus the length of the clearway available.
The climb gradient is defined as the ratio of....
The increase of altitude to horizontal air distance expressed as a percentage.
What is Vx?
The speed for best angle of climb
What is the maximum rate of climb that can be maintained at the absolute ceiling?
0 ft/ min
What is the Vx speed for jet aircraft?
What is Vy?
Speed for maximum rate of climb.
What is the Vy speed for jet aircraft?
1.32 x Vmd
What happens to Vy as altitude increases?
What happens to Vx as altitude increases?
What happens to Vx and Vy at the absolute ceiling?
They are equal
What is the maximum range speed for jet aircraft?
1.32 x Vmd
How is the cycle of a jet engine called?
The Brayton cycle
Shrouding of the stator blade tips is designed to do minimise what?
What is easyJet's vision?
To Turn Europe Orange
How is easyJet going to turn Europe orange?
By offering low fares to convenient (primary) airports on convenient times of the day
How many aircraft in the easyJet fleet?
200 (162 A319/ 31 A320/ 7 B737)
By how much increased easyJets total revenue in May 2011 compared to 2010?
How many people are employed by easyJet?
How many pilots are employed by easyJet?
How many seats were sold in May 2011?
28,1 million (increase of 11.1%)
What was the reported profit before tax in 2010?
154 million pounds
How many passengers flown easyJet in 2010?
48,8 million passengers
How many people live within one hour driving of one of easyjet's airports?
Of the passenger numbers, how many people were business travelers?
How many airports does easyJet fly to?
In how many countries does easyjet fly?
What is easyjet's vision and how are they going to achieve that?
- To turn Europe orange by:
- - No compromises on safety
- - Offering low fares to convenient (primary) airports, on convenient times of the day
- - Smart cost management
How long does the initial stage of a thunderstorm last?
How long does the mature stage of a thunderstorm last?
How long does the disipating stage of a thunderstorm last?
1,2 to 2,5 hours
How long does a microburst last?
About 5-10 minutes
Which way do jetstreams travel?
Westerly, except in summer there is an easterly jet over the tropics.
At what speed must a jetstream travel to be classified as a jhetstream?
What are the dangers associated with thunderstorms?
Severe turbulence, severe icing, microbursts, hail, interference on radio equipment, lightning risks
What is V2? Why is it important?
V2 is the minumum speed to be achieved by screen height. This is important because in case of an engine faliure it is still possbile to maintain directional control and sufficent climb performance.
What are other 'easy' brands owned by Sir Stelios and the easy group?
Easycar, easyhotel, easyholidays, easyjobs, easymusic, easygym etc..
What are the ILS minimums?
- CAT I: 200ft DA & 600m RVR
- CAT II: 100FT DH & RVR 600 to 300m
- CAT IIIA: 50FT DH & RVR 300 to 150m
- CAT IIIB: No DH & RVR Below 150m
- CAT IIIC: DH 0FT/ RVR 0
What is an approach ban?
- When making a descent at an aerodrome to a runway for which there is a notified instrument approach procedure an aircraft must not descend from a height of 1000 feet or more above the aerodrome to a height less than 1000 feet above the aerodrome if the relevant runway visual range for that runway is at the time less than the specified minimum for landing.
- CAP393 Air navigation order.
What challenges does Easyjet face?
Fuel prices, increasing competition, currency fluctuations, weather disruptions (ash/ snow)
What did easyjet do against volcanic ash?
Developed AVOID radar.
What type of leader are you?
What if the pursers tells you she smelled alcohol on the captain. He is outside checking aircraft. What would you do?
DO NOT FLY
When would you not follow sop"s?
Example of leadership situation
Example of how I motivated someone
Example of how I brought humour into professional environment
Take of with more flaps, what happens to ground roll?
Reduces up to the maximum take off flap setting. After this setting the drag penalty is greater, causing a slower acceleration that results in an increased TORR.
What are functions of spoilers?
Lfit dumpers, roll control, speed brakes
When have you encountered bad leadership and how did you deal with that?
Easyjet is a low cost carrier, but sometimes airlines like BA offer flights for the same price, why would customers choose for Easyjet?
- - Customer service
- - On time performance (81% within 15 minutes in 2011 BA: 72%)
- - More environmental friendly (easyJet's newer aircraft are up to 30% more fuel efficient and emits 27% less carbon per passenger per kilomter due to newer aircraft, fuller aircraft and short haul direct trips)
- - easyJet Flexi (flexibel dates)
- - instead of flying from heathrow flying from Gatwick, stansted, Luton so less dense airports
What service did Easyjet introduce to be more attractive for business customers?
What does easyJet flexi Fares mean?
- - Unlimmited free date changes to yout flight within a four week period.
- - 1 piece of hold luggage
- - 1 piece of hand luggage
- - Speedy boarding
- - No extra fees
Can you explain what coffin corner is?
Coffin corner is the altitude where Mcrit and the prestall buffet are the same. This is also known as the absolute ceiling.
Where does coffin corner occur?
At the aircraft's absolute ceiling, where the speeds at which mach number buffet and prestall buffet are coincident.
What are the 3 means of breaking during a rejected take-off?
Thrust reversers, ground spoilers, Brakes (manual braking/ anti skid)
Apart from ground breaking, what are the other uses of the spoilers?
Roll control, air speed brakes, ground lift dumpers
What can you as a pilot do to keep customers flying with Easyjet? (They wanted to hear information on how to improve the customer service, costs and operational standards)
- - Fly on time, reduce delays
- - Follow SOP's
- - Keep passengers informed in case of delays
- - Be freindly
- - Smile
- - Be professional
- - Be pollite
Who are the direct competitors of Easyjet?
British Airways, Iberia, KLM/ Air France, Lufthansa, Air Berlin, Vueling
Give an example of when you improved efficiency at work.
Sound engineering at Caveman
You are told to hold at a waypoint. How long or how far before the waypoint should you reduce to you holding speed.
3 minutes before the ETA at the fix
You are told to hold at a waypoint. How long or how far before the waypoint should you be at your holding altitude?
5 nm before reaching the fix
A captain bust’s his altitude on decent, what do you do? If he ignores you, then what do you do.
Do you know what TCAS is, if yes please explain how it works
TCAS is Traffic Collisio Avoidace System. It provides trafic information and maneuver advice between aircraft if their flight paths are conflicting with each other. It uses the Secondary Surveillance Radar transponders to plot their positions and relatve velocities.
What ground equipment does TCAS use?
TCAS is completely independant of ground-based radar units.
How is distance calculated in TCAS systems?
By the time delay between the transmitted and received signals.
What are the advantages of fly-by-wire?
Reduction in weaight and costs and flight envelope protection
What have you done after your graduation to keep your skills and knowledge up to date.
I flew on a regular basis in the simulator at EPST. I also did some home studieing, a study group with fellow students and working at KLM helped on gaining technical information.
Tell me what you know about the Airbus A319/320
- - Narrow body, short to medium range, twin engine aircraft
- - A320 familiy include A318, A319, A320, A321
- - First flight on 22 february in 1987
- - First delivery 28 March 1988
- - A319: 156 pax/ A320: 180 pax
- - Powered by CFM International CFM56-5B engines
- - It pioneered the use of fly by wire technique
- - Flight deck is equipped with EFIS.
- - Newer Airbus aircraft feature LCD unit displays instead of Cathode Ray Tube (reduction in weight)
- - Features ECAM
- - Features FADEC
How many seats does the A319-100 have?
What is the wing sweep angle in the A319 and A320?
How many seats does the A320-200 have?
WHat is the cruising speed mach number for the A319 and A320?
WHat is the maximum Mach speed for the A319 and A320?
What is the service ceiling for the A320 and A319?
What is the MTOW for the A319?
75.5 T (lb)
What is the MTOW for the A320?
78 T (lb)
What is the max range for the A319?
What is the max range for the A320?
What is the purpose of flight envelope protection?
It prevents the pilot from making control commands that would force the aircraft to exceed its structural and aerodynamic operating limits.
How many hydraulic systems does the Airbus have.
Three (blue, yellow, green)
Difference between BA (shorthaul) & easy
Situation: engine failure just before TOD and at that moment the purser informs you that a passenger has a heart attack. How would you deal with the situation. (fly the aircraft!)
How do you cope with stress.
Tend to devide the stress factors to have a better overview.
What is in your opinion the difference between good service and excellent service.
Give an example of a situation when you improved safety at work.
Do you work with deadlines and how do you cope with it.
Everyday at KLM - Prioritising
What was the total revenue in 2010?
2973,1 Million pounds
How much in percent was the total revenue up in 2010?
What was the profit before tax in 2010?
154 Million pounds
How much was the profit before tax up in percentage in 2010?
How much passengers flown easyJet in 2010?
How much was the increase in passengers numbers in 2010 in percentage?
What was the load factor in 2010?
What was the total impact of the vulcano eruption in 2010 in pounds?
57 million pounds
What was the total revenue in the first half year of 2011?
1266 million pounds
What was the loss before taxt in the first half year of 2011?
153 million pounds
How much passengers flown easyJet in the first half year of 2011?
How much were the passengers numbers up in percentage in the first half year of 2011?
What is the On Time Performance of easyJet in the first half year of 2011?
What are the reasons for the loss before taxt in the first half year of 2011?
Rising fuel costs, increased taxation on passengers and a weak consumer environment
What progresses made easyJet in the first half year of 2011?
- - Frequency increased on key business routes such as London - Amsterdam and Paris - Toulouse and new routes such as Copenhagen - Paris and Copenhagen - Basel
- - Strong growth in mainland Europe with seats flown up 21%
- - Launched new leissure destinations such as Amman & Jordan
- - Valueable peak time slots obtained at Gatwick, Charles de Gaulle and Amsterdam
- - 20 underperforming routes cut
What are the focus points in the second half of 2011?
- - Optimise profitability by shifting capacity from business to leisure routs during peak summer
- - Focused growth in mainland Europe, targeting opportunities in the Netherlands and France
- - Continually monitor route performance and improve frequency on key business routes
How is easyJet going to attract more business travellers?
- - Increaseing frequency on key business routes
- - Flexibel fare on easyJet.com
- - Focused targeting of corporates by dedicated sales team
- - Rollout incentives fro travel management companies
What are the possible risks for easyJet?
- - Increased competition
- - Increased fuel prices
- - Currency fluctuations
- - External events causing disruptions (extreme weather, strikes, ash etc..)