Bio 004,CH14, College of the Desert

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  1. Macroevolution
    • Major changes in the history of life – usually present in the fossil record.

    • 1. Origin of new species,

    • 2.Origin of evolutionary novelty,

    • 3. Diversification after evolutionary breakthrough,

    • 4. Diversification after mass extinctions,

  2. Speciation
    Formation of a new species when one or more new species branch from an ancestral species which continues to exist.
  3. Species

    A population or group of populations whose members have the potential to naturally interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

  4. Classification of Species Based Upon
    • 1. Observable/measurable physical traits.

    • 2. Ecological niches/unique adaptations.

    • 3. Unique genetic history (DNA).

  5. Prezygotic Barrier
    • Reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization of eggs if members of different species should attempt to mate.

    • a) Temporal Isolation (different breeding times).

    • b) Habitat Isolation (different locations).

    • c) Behavioral Isolation (differences in rituals).

    • d)Mechanical Isolation (mismatched genitalia).

    • e) Gametic Isolation (mismatched gametes).

  6. Postzygotic Barrier
    Reproductive barrier that operates should interspecies mating occur and form hybrid zygotes.
  7. Hybrid inviability
    Failure to develop
  8. Hybrid sterility
    Failure to fertilize.
  9. Allopatric Speciation
    • Formation of a new species as a result of a population becoming isolated by a geographic barrier.
    • Example: African cichlids at different water depths.
  10. Sympatric Speciation
    • Formation of a new species as a result of genetic change from the original population; no geographic barrier.

    • - Example: Apple maggot flies
  11. Gradualism
    When evolution occurs slowly with accumulated series of changes over long periods of time.
  12. Punctuated Equilibrium
    When evolution occurs in spurts between which are long periods of little or no evolutionary change.
  13. Exaptation
    • Structure that became adapted for one function, later becoming adapted for a different function in a different context.

    • Example: Feathers.

  14. Paedomorphosis
    • Retention into adult-hood of features that were solely juvenile features in ancestors.
    • Example: Axolotl (with gills).
  15. Continental Drift
    • 250 mya The super continent Pangaea was formed.
    • 180 mya Pangaea roke up and continents drifted apart again resulting in individual experiments in evolution.
  16. Extinctions
    Death of all members of a species
  17. Permian Extinction
    • 90% of marine animals and many terrestrial animals
    • Cause: geophysical activity (225 mya).
  18. Cretaceous Extinction
    • Nearly all the dinosaurs.
    • Cause: meteorite (65 mya)
  19. Systematics
    Study of diversity and relationships of organisms.
  20. Taxonomy
    Identification, naming, and classification of species.
  21. Carolus Linnaeus
    • (1707 – 1778) Father of modern taxonomy
    • Swedish physician/botanist, developed first, formal taxonomic system.
    • "Deus creavit, Linnaeus disposuit.“
    • God created, Linnaeus organized.
  22. Two Features of the Linnaean System
    • 1. Two-part name for each species.
    • 2. Hierarchical classification.
  23. Hierarchical Classification
    • Domain: Eukarya
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Chordata
    • Class: Mammalia
    • Order: Carnivora
    • Family: Canidae
    • Genus: Canis
    • Species: familiaris
  24. Phylogeny
    Study of the evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
  25. Phylogenetic Tree
    Branching diagrams depicting hypotheses about evolutionary relationships
  26. Homologies
    • (morphological): Morphological similarities due to shared ancestry.
    • (molecular): Molecular similarities in DNA due to shared ancestry.
  27. Analogies
    Similarities between different species occur due to convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry
  28. Convergent Evolution
    When similar environ-mental pressures and natural selection produce similar adaptations in organisms from different evolutionary lineages.
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Bio 004,CH14, College of the Desert
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