Neuro Test #3
Card Set Information
Neuro Test #3
Arteries and Pre and Postnatal Brain
What are the 3 cerebral arteries?
1. Anterior Cerebral Artery ACA
2. Middle Cerebral Artery MCA
3. Posterior Cerebral Artery PCA
The ACA branches off the?
Anterior communicating artery
The ACA supples blood to where?
1. medial frontal lobe surfaces
2. limbic lobe
3. medial surface motor cortex
What is the overlap of distal/smallest capillaries from cerebral arteries?
The MCA is a direct extension of?
The Internal Carotid Artery
Which artery is the largest of the cerebral arteries?
MCA-Middle Cerebral Artery
The Middle Cerebral Artery supples blood to where?
1.Critical areas for speech and language in the frontal lobe
2. Temporal Lobe
The Posterior Cerebral Artery is the result of a bifurcation of what?
The Basilar artery
The Posterior Cerebral Artery supplies where?
1.Inferior surface of the Temporal love
(loss of vision if there is an occulsion)
What are numerous smaller arteries that arise from the circle of Willis and the three major cerbral branches that penetrate deeper into interior regions of the brain?
Central Penetrating Arteries
Circle of Willis is comprised of what two paired arteries?
Posterior Communicating Arteries
Anterior Communicating arteries
What three arteries join together to form the circle of Willis?
The subclavian artery gives rise to?
Common Carotids which includes the
The External Carotids supply blood to where?
facial muscles, forehead, and oral, nasal, orbital cavities
The Internal Carotid supplies blood to where?
The cranium (brain)
Which artery courses along the ventral lateral surfaces of the medulla?
Which Artery ascends along the midline on the ventral surface of the pons?
Which structure connects internal carotid and vertebral/basilar blood supply to the cerebral arteries?
Circle of Willis
What structure acts as a "safety valve" for many arteries?
Circle of Willis
If there is an occlusion below the circle of Willis will or will not cause damage to the brain?
An occulcusion above the Circle of Willis will or will not cause damage to the brain?
Conception through Week 8?
Week 9 through Week 36?
16 cells (4 days post conception)?
Fluid filled sphere (4-5 days post conception)?
A blastocyst is composed of?
2. Inner Cell Mass
Outer layer of cuboidal cells (placenta)?
Embryo (Embryoblast) is called?
Inner Cell Mass
The primitive streak does what?
Forms and generates mesoderm
There are three Germ Layers present on the Primitive streak. What are they?
1. Ectoderm (outer)
2. Mesoderm (middle)
3. Endoderm (inner)
What is the ectoderm?
Outer layer that makes up crain, nerves, and skin
What is the mesoderm?
middle layer that makes upp muscles, bones, tendons, circulatory system
What is the Endoderm?
Inner layer that makes up the epithelial lining of digestive and respiratory systems
What is the strip of mesodermal cells on the midline axis?
What is the primitive axial skeleton of the embryo?
What underlies the Neural Place (Shield)?
1. strip of mesodermal cells on the midline axis
2. the primitive axial skeleton of the embryo
3. underlies the Neural Plate (Sheild)
What is the thickening of the ectoderm where the center deepens and edges raise?
The Neural Plates (Sheild)
When the ridges of ectoderm overlying the notochord thicken and develop this is called?
______ is the depression between the neural folds?
The ___ ___ forms when the neural folds approximate and fuse at the midline?
The Neural Tube becomes:
1. The brain
2. The ventricles
3. The cancl of the spinal cord
The ___ ___ are ectodermal cells on either side of the neural folds that contribute to the spinal nerves, cranial nerves, and the autonomic nervous system.
____ _____ divide and subdivide into smaller arteries.
___ ___ separate into arterioles.
Smaller arteries separate into___?
Arterioles deliver blood to the ___?
____ only permit slower flow of blood to allow eschange of nutrients and waste products.
___ receive used blood from the capillaries.
Venules become larger ___ that deliver blood to the ___ ____.
____ ____ collect blood and return it to the Jugular vein
Venous sinuses collect blood and return it to the?
What artieries supply deep brain structures such as the thalamus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, and internal capsule with blood?
Central Penetrating Arteries
What is the sequence of conception?
4. Primitive Streak
When the neural tube froms it becomes what?
The predicessor of Central Nervous System
The neural crest becomes what?
The peripheral nervous system
The first 20 weeks the brain is?
Beyond 20 weeks the brain?
Developes sulci and gyri
At the end of the 3rd trimester?
All adult surface features are present
At birth, the brain weighs __% of the eventual adult brain?
Brain weight increase ___% in the first two years.
The larges increase in brain weight takes place in the first ___ years of life where the brain quadruples in weight.
2 to 3 years
Brain weight starts to decline at age ___, at about __% per decade.
at age 30 and about 2 %
Resulting in a 10% decrease by 90
Surface of the brain occurs with age and changes are seen most in what area?
Forebrain (frontal lobe area)
What is the process by which neurons are created and that are the most acitve during prenatal development?
The process of programmed cell death that occurs naturally is called?
What are the changes in grey matter verses white matter due to aging?
The higher ratio of white matter is reduced severely with age.
What is fluid intelligence?
Our ability to think and reason, our ongoing thought processes and monitoring of performance.
What kind of intelligence deals with "Information Processing"or also known as "Executive Function"?
What is crystallized intelligence?
Our accumulated store of information and vocabulary from our education and life experiences.
In what type of situations do we use crystallized intelligence?
What type of intelligence is more affected with aging?
What is the retention of inforamtion that must be manipulated to perform a mental task?
What type of memory is used with memories based on events and exeriences?
What type of memory is used when memories are based on facts, concepts, word associations, etc?
What type of memory is used with memories of physical skills such as swimming, bike riding, playing tennis, etc?