Neuro Test #3

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Author:
llorenz10
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92204
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Neuro Test #3
Updated:
2011-06-28 16:55:06
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Neuro
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Arteries and Pre and Postnatal Brain
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  1. What are the 3 cerebral arteries?
    • 1. Anterior Cerebral Artery ACA
    • 2. Middle Cerebral Artery MCA
    • 3. Posterior Cerebral Artery PCA
  2. The ACA branches off the?
    Anterior communicating artery
  3. The ACA supples blood to where?
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. medial frontal lobe surfaces
    • 2. limbic lobe
    • 3. medial surface motor cortex
  4. What is the overlap of distal/smallest capillaries from cerebral arteries?
    Watershed area
  5. The MCA is a direct extension of?
    The Internal Carotid Artery
  6. Which artery is the largest of the cerebral arteries?
    MCA-Middle Cerebral Artery
  7. The Middle Cerebral Artery supples blood to where?
    1.
    2.
    • 1.Critical areas for speech and language in the frontal lobe
    • 2. Temporal Lobe
  8. The Posterior Cerebral Artery is the result of a bifurcation of what?
    The Basilar artery
  9. The Posterior Cerebral Artery supplies where?
    1.
    2.
    • 1.Inferior surface of the Temporal love
    • 2.Occipital Lobe
    • (loss of vision if there is an occulsion)
  10. What are numerous smaller arteries that arise from the circle of Willis and the three major cerbral branches that penetrate deeper into interior regions of the brain?
    Central Penetrating Arteries
  11. Circle of Willis is comprised of what two paired arteries?
    • Posterior Communicating Arteries
    • Anterior Communicating arteries
  12. What three arteries join together to form the circle of Willis?
    • Subclavian Artery
    • Vertebral Artery
    • Basilar Artery
  13. The subclavian artery gives rise to?
    • Common Carotids which includes the
    • External Carotids
    • Internal Carotids
  14. The External Carotids supply blood to where?
    facial muscles, forehead, and oral, nasal, orbital cavities
  15. The Internal Carotid supplies blood to where?
    The cranium (brain)
  16. Which artery courses along the ventral lateral surfaces of the medulla?
    Vertebral Artery
  17. Which Artery ascends along the midline on the ventral surface of the pons?
    Basilar Artery
  18. Which structure connects internal carotid and vertebral/basilar blood supply to the cerebral arteries?
    Circle of Willis
  19. What structure acts as a "safety valve" for many arteries?
    Circle of Willis
  20. If there is an occlusion below the circle of Willis will or will not cause damage to the brain?
    Will Not
  21. An occulcusion above the Circle of Willis will or will not cause damage to the brain?
    WILL
  22. Conception through Week 8?
    Embryonic Period
  23. Week 9 through Week 36?
    Fetal Period
  24. Fertilized ovum?
    Zygote
  25. 16 cells (4 days post conception)?
    Morula
  26. Fluid filled sphere (4-5 days post conception)?
    Blastocyst
  27. A blastocyst is composed of?
    1.
    2.
    • 1. Trophoblast
    • 2. Inner Cell Mass
  28. Outer layer of cuboidal cells (placenta)?
    Trophoblast
  29. Embryo (Embryoblast) is called?
    Inner Cell Mass
  30. The primitive streak does what?
    Forms and generates mesoderm
  31. There are three Germ Layers present on the Primitive streak. What are they?
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. Ectoderm (outer)
    • 2. Mesoderm (middle)
    • 3. Endoderm (inner)
  32. What is the ectoderm?
    Outer layer that makes up crain, nerves, and skin
  33. What is the mesoderm?
    middle layer that makes upp muscles, bones, tendons, circulatory system
  34. What is the Endoderm?
    Inner layer that makes up the epithelial lining of digestive and respiratory systems
  35. What is the strip of mesodermal cells on the midline axis?
    Notochord
  36. What is the primitive axial skeleton of the embryo?
    Notochord
  37. What underlies the Neural Place (Shield)?
    Notochord
  38. Notochord
    • 1. strip of mesodermal cells on the midline axis
    • 2. the primitive axial skeleton of the embryo
    • 3. underlies the Neural Plate (Sheild)
  39. What is the thickening of the ectoderm where the center deepens and edges raise?
    The Neural Plates (Sheild)
  40. When the ridges of ectoderm overlying the notochord thicken and develop this is called?
    Neural Folds
  41. ______ is the depression between the neural folds?
    Neural Groove
  42. The ___ ___ forms when the neural folds approximate and fuse at the midline?
    Neural Tube
  43. The Neural Tube becomes:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. The brain
    • 2. The ventricles
    • 3. The cancl of the spinal cord
  44. The ___ ___ are ectodermal cells on either side of the neural folds that contribute to the spinal nerves, cranial nerves, and the autonomic nervous system.
    Neural Crest
  45. ____ _____ divide and subdivide into smaller arteries.
    Larger arteries
  46. ___ ___ separate into arterioles.
    Smaller arteries
  47. Smaller arteries separate into___?
    Arterioles
  48. Arterioles deliver blood to the ___?
    Capillaries
  49. ____ only permit slower flow of blood to allow eschange of nutrients and waste products.
    Capillaries
  50. ___ receive used blood from the capillaries.
    Venules
  51. Venules become larger ___ that deliver blood to the ___ ____.
    • veins
    • venous sinuses
  52. ____ ____ collect blood and return it to the Jugular vein
    Venous sinuses
  53. Venous sinuses collect blood and return it to the?
    Jugular vein
  54. What artieries supply deep brain structures such as the thalamus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen, and internal capsule with blood?
    Central Penetrating Arteries
  55. What is the sequence of conception?
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    • 1. Zygote
    • 2. Morula
    • 3. Blastocyst
    • 4. Primitive Streak
  56. When the neural tube froms it becomes what?
    The predicessor of Central Nervous System
  57. The neural crest becomes what?
    The peripheral nervous system
  58. The first 20 weeks the brain is?
    Smooth
  59. Beyond 20 weeks the brain?
    Developes sulci and gyri
  60. At the end of the 3rd trimester?
    All adult surface features are present
  61. At birth, the brain weighs __% of the eventual adult brain?
    25%
  62. Brain weight increase ___% in the first two years.
    350%
  63. The larges increase in brain weight takes place in the first ___ years of life where the brain quadruples in weight.
    2 to 3 years
  64. Brain weight starts to decline at age ___, at about __% per decade.
    • at age 30 and about 2 %
    • Resulting in a 10% decrease by 90
  65. Surface of the brain occurs with age and changes are seen most in what area?
    Forebrain (frontal lobe area)
  66. What is the process by which neurons are created and that are the most acitve during prenatal development?
    Neurogensis
  67. The process of programmed cell death that occurs naturally is called?
    Apoptosis
  68. What are the changes in grey matter verses white matter due to aging?
    The higher ratio of white matter is reduced severely with age.
  69. What is fluid intelligence?
    Our ability to think and reason, our ongoing thought processes and monitoring of performance.
  70. What kind of intelligence deals with "Information Processing"or also known as "Executive Function"?
    Fluid Intelligence
  71. What is crystallized intelligence?
    Our accumulated store of information and vocabulary from our education and life experiences.
  72. In what type of situations do we use crystallized intelligence?
    Problem solving
  73. What type of intelligence is more affected with aging?
    Fluid Intelligence
  74. What is the retention of inforamtion that must be manipulated to perform a mental task?
    Working Memory
  75. What type of memory is used with memories based on events and exeriences?
    Episodic Memory
  76. What type of memory is used when memories are based on facts, concepts, word associations, etc?
    Semantic Memory
  77. What type of memory is used with memories of physical skills such as swimming, bike riding, playing tennis, etc?
    Procedural Memory

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