Nutrition S2M2

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Nutrition S2M2
2011-08-13 20:50:21
Ross S2M2

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  1. Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
    The energy required by the body at complete mental and physical rest to stay functioning
  2. Ingestion of food stimulates metabolism equal to
    10% of the food consumed (ex. 2000 cal meal = energy utilized is 200 cal)
  3. How does exercise influence BMR
    Athletes show 5% increase in BMR
  4. What are the different classes of activity and their relation to the BMR
    • Sedentary - BMR x 20% = cal use from activity/day
    • Very light - BMR x 30%
    • Moderate - BMR x 40%
    • Heavy - BMR x 50%
  5. How does the BMR of women compare to men
    Women, do to their naturally higher fat percentile have a 5-10% lower metabolic rate then men of the same weight and height
  6. How does sleep effect BMR
    It decreases it by 10%
  7. How does pregnancy and lactating effect BMR
    Increases it
  8. How does temperature effect the BMR
    Temperatures greater then 86 degrees Fahrenheit increase BMR 5%
  9. What is the calculation for males and females to determine their BMR
    • Males - 1 cal x Kg(wt) x hr
    • Famales - .9 cal x Kg(wt) x hr
    • (ex. 1cal x 68Kg x 24hrs = 1,656 cal utilized)
  10. What are considered the six nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein
    • Fats
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  11. What is the overall function of carbohydrates in human nutrition
    Provide energy
  12. How much of a persons total calories in a day should come from carbohydrates
  13. How many calories are there per gram of carbohydrates
    4 calories per gram of carbohydrates
  14. What happens if someone is deficient in carbohydrates intake
    The body turns to breaking down muscles for proteins

    Fats are unable to be used effectively for energy because carbohydrates are necessary for effective fat metabolism, Ketosis results
  15. How many grams of carbohydrates are needed a day to avoid Ketosis and breaking down of proteins in muscle for energy
    100 grams a day (400 cal)
  16. How many carbohydrates are in a slice of toast
    15 grams (60 cal)
  17. How many grams of carbohydrates are in an 8 oz glass of milk
    12 grams (48 cal)
  18. How many grams of carbohydrates are in an orange and an apple
    • 10 grams
    • 12 grams
  19. How many grams of carbohydrates are in two tablespoons of oatmeal
    15 grams
  20. How many grams of carbohydrates are in a 1/2 cup of cooked rice
    15 grams
  21. How many grams of fiber are suggested a day and what is their purpose
    • 25 grams a day
    • They are not digested, but assist digestion through adding bulk to the feces and ensure free elimination
  22. How is the amount of fiber ingested and colon cancer related
    A decrease in dietary fiber has a higher risk for colon cancer because the secondary products of bile are carcinogenic and fiber helps rid the body of them before those products are made
  23. What are some of the best sources of fiber
    Beans, peanuts, and wheat germ
  24. What are the ten essential amino acids
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylalanine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
    • Arginine
    • Histadine
    • "MATT is the VP on the HILL"
  25. What are the negatives in a diet high in animal protein
    • Bone demineralization
    • Enhanced decline in kidney function in the elderly
  26. Calciuric effect
    High animal protein causes increase calcium output in the urine which can lead to osteoporosis
  27. How many grams of protein are in a single egg
    7 grams
  28. How many grams of protein are in an ounce of cheese
    7 grams
  29. How many grams of protein are in a 1 1/2 ounce fish
    7 grams
  30. How many grams of protein are there in and ounce of uncooked beans (6 Tbl spoons cooked)
    7 grams
  31. How many grams of protein are there in a chicken drumstick
    7 grams
  32. What does a positive Nitrogen balance indicate
    The body is storing more nitrogen by building new tissue, and losing less by breakdown
  33. What does a negative Nitrogen balance indicate
    The body is breaking down more tissue then it is building up
  34. What is the recommended amount of protein intake a day for athletes and normal individuals
    • Athletes: 1-1.6g per Kilogram
    • Normal: .8g per Kilogram
  35. A Kilogram equals how many pounds
    2.2 pounds
  36. What percent of calories in a day should come from protein
  37. Protein yeilds how many calories per gram
    4 calories
  38. What is the problem with taking in a lot of the same amino acid
    They all compete for the same carriers and therefore can actually lead to a deficiency if it is the only source of protein
  39. No more then what percent of daily calorie intake should come from fats
    30% (10% polyunsaturated, 10% saturated, 10% monounsaturated)
  40. Fat has how many calories per gram
    9 calories per gram of fat
  41. A pound of body weight equals how many calories
    3500 calories
  42. Folate deficiency causes
    Macrocytic anemia
  43. What people are prone to Vit B12 deficiency
    • Strict vegetarians
    • Alcoholics
  44. Vit B12 deficiency causes
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Pallor
    • Parathesia
    • Bruising
  45. What is the recommended calcium intake
    • 9-18 yrs old - 1300mg/day
    • 19-50 yrs old - 1000mg/day
    • >51 yrs old - 1200mg/day
  46. Calcium absorption relies on
    Vit D levels
  47. Iron deficiency anemia is characterized by
    Small microcytic erythrocytes and diminished levels of hemoglobin
  48. Besides iron deficiency, what other deficient nutrients could cause Anemia
    • Vit B6
    • Vit B12
    • Vit A
    • Vit C
    • Folic acid
  49. Marasmus
    A chronic condition of semi starvation leading to growth retardation in children often caused by diluted formula and contaminated water
  50. Kwashiorkor
    • Diet high in carbohydrates and inadequate in protein
    • Pitting edema
    • Pot belly
    • Enlarged fatty liver
    • Muscle wasting masked by edema
  51. Iron absorption is enhanced by
    Calcium intake
  52. How much folate should be taken in by people over 19 years old
    400 micrograms a day
  53. What is the recommended amount of grains that should be consumed every day
    6 oz (6 slices of bread, 3 cups of cooked rice)
  54. What is the recommended intake of vegetables each day
    2 and a half cups
  55. What is the recommended intake of fruits each day
    Two cups
  56. What is the recommended intake of milk products each day
    3 cups
  57. What is the recommended intake of meats and beans each day
    5 and a half ounces