Macromolecules

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Author:
Geoff
ID:
92231
Filename:
Macromolecules
Updated:
2011-06-28 03:03:22
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BIOL Chapter
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Description:
Study questions for Chapter 5 "Macromolecules" for BIOL 189 College of Southern Nevada
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  1. List the 4 macromolecules
    • 1. Carbohydrates
    • 2. Proteins
    • 3. Lipids
    • 4. Nucleic Acids
  2. What is a monomer?
    • Small, repeating identical units.
    • (Building blocks)
    • Used to make polymers.
  3. What is a polymer?
    A large molecule made up of monomers.
  4. Which macromolecules are polymers?
    • Proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
    • (Lipids are not)
  5. What two functional groups combine to form an amino acid?
    Amino Group and Carboxyl Group
  6. What are the purpose of peptide bonds? How do they form?
    • Amino group of one amino acid unites with carboxyl group of next amino acid.
    • Form proteins.
  7. What can cause a protein to denature? What are the effects?
    Usually due to a change in the proteins enviornment. For example, change in pH or an increase in temperature.

    Protein structure is destroyed.
  8. What are the four layers of protein structure?
    • 1. Primary
    • 2. Secondary
    • 3. Tertiary
    • 4. Quaternary
  9. Describe the primary layer of protein structure.
    • Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence.
    • Simplest structure.
  10. Describe the secondary layer of protein structure.
    Alpha helix or beta pleated sheet.

    Coil or fold the amino acids.
  11. Describe the tertiary layer of protein structure.
    Alpha and beta superimposed on each other within same structure.
  12. Describe the quaternary layer of protein structure.
    Combination of 2+ polypeptides.
  13. Classes of proteins.

    Define enzymes.
    • Speeds up reactions
    • Also causes reactions to require less energy.

    Ex. sucrase, lactase, acetylcholinesterase
  14. Classes of proteins.

    Define contractile proteins.
    • Allow for movement.
    • Contract to move body/organisms.

    ex. actin, myosin, cilia, flagella
  15. Classes of proteins.

    Define hormones.
    • Control or regulate body systems.
    • Slow, long-term control.

    ex. insulin, testosterone
  16. Classes of proteins.

    Define transport proteins.
    Allow you to transport "stuff".

    ex. hemoglobin (transports oxygen)
  17. Classes of proteins.

    Define structural proteins.
    Provide structure or support to an organism.

    ex. Keratin
  18. Classes of proteins.

    Define storage proteins.
    Stores proteins/amino acids.

    ex. albumins (egg whites)
  19. Classes of proteins.

    Define receptors.
    • Binding site.
    • Hormone or enzyme binds to receptor.

    Receptors are specific.

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