WCU Microbiology 140: Chapter 1

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WCU Microbiology 140: Chapter 1
2011-06-28 06:54:51
WCU Westcoast university microbiology history chapter

Chapter 1: A brief history of microbiology
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  1. 1st person to view microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa)
  2. Who developed the taxonomic system?
  3. What is the taxonomic system?
    A system for naming plants and animals simular organisms together
  4. What are Leeuwenhoek's 6 microoganism groups?
    • Fungi
    • protozoa
    • algae
    • bacteria
    • archaea
    • small animals
  5. 3 determining factors for the taxnomic system:
    • classification (arrangment in groups)
    • nomenclature (names)
    • Identification (traits of organisms)
  6. 3 Characteristics of Fungi:
    • Eukaryotic (have mucleus membrain)
    • live off other organisms
    • cell walls
  7. Fungi are composed into 2 types, what are they?
    Molds (multicellular;produced by sexual and asexual spores)

    Yeast (unicellular; produced asexually)
  8. 4 characteristics of Protozoa:
    • single-celled eukaryotes
    • live in live host
    • mostly asexual reproduction
    • capable of locomotion
  9. 3 types of Protozoa locomotion:
    • pseudopodia (extention and contraction; ameba)
    • cilia (numerous short hairs)
    • flagella (tail-like extentions)
  10. 5 characterisics of Algae:
    • unicellular or multicellular
    • photosynthetic
    • simple reproductive structures
    • a main food source
    • smells like bile
  11. Function of algae:
    helps breaks down substances in H2O.
  12. 4 Characteristics of bacteria and archaea:
    • unicellular and lack nuclei
    • smaller than eukaryotes
    • porkaryotes found in moisture
    • reproduct asexually
  13. Difference between bacteria and alchaea.
    • Bacteria: call walls contain peptidoglycan; lack cell walls; can cause disease (good or bad)
    • Archaea: walls composed of polymers; not harmful.
  14. What was the 1st vaccine created for?
    small pox
  15. What was the first antibiotic created for?
  16. What was the first bacteria created for?
    cure for anthorax
  17. What was aristotles theory on spontanious generation? Was it true?
    Things can arise from nonliving matter.

    No, It is not true. This was proven false by Redi's experiment.
  18. What was the conclusion for Redi's experiment?
    • When decaying meat was kept isolated from flies (via cheeze cloth or lid), maggots never developed.
    • Meat exposed to flies was soon infested with maggots.
    • His experiment proved aristotles theory wrong.
  19. What does abiogenesis mean?
    The orgin of life
  20. What is spontaneous generation?
    Living things can arise from nonliving matter.
  21. Who developed the germ theory of disease?
  22. Who studied causative agents of disease (like anthrax)?
  23. 1st disease proven to be bacterial origin?
  24. What is a pathogen?
    disease causing organisms
  25. what is mycology?
    study of Fungi
  26. Study of virus is?
  27. what is the "study of parasites"?
  28. What is industial microbes?
    Man harnessed microorganisms used to produce useful things
  29. 3 usages for Industrial microbes:
    • produce chemicals (citric acid)
    • enhance food (bread, yogart)
    • medical products (insulin, antibiotics)
  30. What were Koch's experiments?
    • simple staining
    • 1st photmicrograph of bacteria (also in a diseased tissue)
    • CFU/ml
    • used steam to sterilize
    • use of petri dishes
    • aspectic techniques
    • distinguished bacteria as a species
  31. What were the 7 things Koch postulated?
    • suspected a cause must me found in every case of disease and be absent in healthy host
    • agent must be isolated and grown outside the host
    • when agent is introducted into a healthy, susceptiable host, the host must get the disease
    • same agent must be reisolated from non-diseases experimental host
  32. Who proved that a specific microbe is a/the cause of illness?
  33. T/F. Many pathogen's aren't bacteria.
  34. Who proposed hand washing to prevent infection and disease? and what type of hand washing?
    Ignes Semmelweis fathered chlorinated handwashing, especially during delivery.
  35. What was Joseph Lister's antiseptic technique?
    carbolic acid technique
  36. How did Florence Nightingale reformed military hospitals in the 19th century?
    hygene in hospitals
  37. Who is John Snow?
    He enclosed infection control and epidemiologly.
  38. What is epidemiology?
    the study of health-event patterns in a society
  39. What is Immuniology?
    a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
  40. What was the Jenner vaccine?
    vaccine against small pox, cowpox, anthrax, rabbies and chlorea
  41. What are the "magic bullets"?
  42. Who is Paul Ehrlich?
    Scietist who treated Syphilis.
  43. What did Ehrlich use to cure syphilis?
  44. What is an obstetrician?
    doctor who deals with children
  45. What is a gynaecolegist?
    doctor that deals with womens health.
  46. What is a pediatrician?
    Works with children and infants who are already born.
  47. What is a nosocomial infection?
    Any sort of infection that originates from a healthcare setting; doctors office, hospitals, etc.
  48. Who worked in fermentation?
  49. Who discovered enzynes in yeast extract?
  50. Who designed herbisides and pesticides, treatment of metabolic diseases, treatment and monitoring patients, and drug design?
    Kluyver and Van Niel
  51. Who proposed the gene sequence could provide understanding of evolution, taxonomic catergories, and identify existance of uncultured microbes?
  52. What causes Cat-scratch fever?
    Unculturable organisms
  53. Who determined that cells belong to bacteria,archaea, or eukaryotes?
  54. What is serology
    study of blood stream
  55. What is immunology
    study of the body's defence agains pathogens
  56. Who discovered penicillian
  57. What is lypopolysaccharides?
    • aka> lypoglycans
    • large molecules made of lipids and polycharrides joined with covalent bonds.
  58. Function of ER
    protein synthesis
  59. Function of the nucleus
    DNA storage site
  60. Function of the mitochondria
    ATP sythesis
  61. Function of a peroxisome
    • contain oxidative enzymes and other enzymes that help produce and degrade hydrogen peroxide
    • oxygen carrier
  62. Function of the golgi apparatous
    Transpoting protein
  63. Function of lysosome
    dispose of cell toxins out of cell.