The Cell

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Geoff
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92247
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The Cell
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2011-07-05 20:47:02
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BIOL Chapter
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Study questions for Chapter 7 "The Cell" for BIOL 189 College of Southern Nevada
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  1. The cell was first discovered in the 1600's with the advent of what technological instrument?
    The Microscope
  2. What are the four tenets of cell theory?
    • All cells come from other cells
    • Cells are the building block of life for plants and animals
    • Cells are the smallest units of our bodies that can perform vital functions
    • Cells maintain homeostasis on a cellular level
  3. No matter the size of the organism, relative cell size remains:
    the same
  4. The size of an organism is determined not by cell size but by:
    cell number
  5. The small size of cells facilitates:
    • membrane transport
    • diffusion of solutes throughout cell
  6. Name the two common types of cells:
    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
  7. What is the primary difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
    Location of DNA
  8. What are four commonalities of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
    • Cytosol - part of the ICF
    • Plasma membrane
    • Chromosomes - some type of DNA
    • Ribosomes
  9. Where is the DNA found in a Eukaryotic cell?
    In the nucleus
  10. Where is the DNA found in a Prokaryotic cell?
    In the nucleoid
  11. True or False: Prokaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles?
    False
  12. Name the two domains that include prokaryotic organisms
    • Domain Bacteria
    • Domain Archaea
  13. This part of a bacteria's anatomy is used for attachment to things?
    Pili
  14. The nucleoid of a bacteria contains what?
    DNA
  15. What are the three parts of a bacteria's outer membrane?
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cell wall
    • Capsule
  16. Flagella is used for:
    Motility
  17. The organisms in Domain Archaea are also know as what?
    Extremophiles
  18. Organisms that thrive in extremely hostile and hot environments are:
    Thermophiles
  19. Halophiles prefer what type of environment?
    Salty
  20. Organisms that thrive in extremely hostile and acidic environments are known as:
    Acidophiles
  21. Alkalophiles prefer which type of environment?
    Basic environments
  22. The two types of Eukaryotic cells are:
    Plant and Animal
  23. Cell walls in plants are made of:
    Cellulose - aids in structure, support, and protection
  24. Define Plasmodesmata
    Pores in the cell wall that lets CO2 in and O2 out
  25. True or False: The pores in a plants cell wall can respond to the environment?
    True
  26. These organelles perform photosynthesis. They also give plants their green color.
    Chloroplasts
  27. What are the two primary functions of vacuoles?
    • Water storage unit
    • Breaks down waste products
  28. This is the membrane surrounding a plant cells vacuole.
    Tonoplast
  29. In a Eukaryotic cell, this is the location of the genetic material.
    The nucleus
  30. DNA is organized into these structures
    Chromosomes
  31. Chromosomes, proteins, and other genetic information comprise this cellular material.
    Chromatin
  32. What is the function of the nucleolus?
    Synthesizes ribosomal RNA which make ribosomes
  33. True or False: The nuclear membrane is double-layered?
    True
  34. Between the layers of the nuclear membrane is the:
    perinuclear space
  35. This substance is the "cytoplasm" of the nucleus. It also contains the chromatin.
    Nucleoplasm
  36. Small holes in the nuclear membrane that let the ribosomes and RNA our of the nucleus are called:
    Nuclear pores
  37. Ribosomes are made up of what two parts?
    The large subunit and the small subunit
  38. Free ribosomes can be found floating around in the:
    cytoplasm
  39. Fixed ribosomes are attached to what organelle?
    Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  40. These organelles are the location of protein synthesis.
    Ribosomes
  41. As the protein content of a cell increases the number of ribosomes:
    also increase
  42. The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus make up what?
    The Endomembrane System
  43. True or False: The endoplasmic reticulum is seperate from the nucleus?
    False - it is continous with the nuclear membrane
  44. This type of ER has ribosomes fixed to it
    Rough ER
  45. Rough ER's main function is:
    protein synthesis
  46. True or False: Rough ER is able to synthesize components of the cell membrane including the limited ability to regenerate cell structure.
    True
  47. True or False: Smooth ER has ribosomes attached to it?
    False
  48. This type of ER synthesizes fats or lipids
    Smooth ER
  49. This type of ER functions to metabolize carbohydrates
    Smooth ER
  50. True or False: Smooth ER plays a role in the detoxification of drugs and plays a role in drug tolerance.
    True
  51. Sarcoplasmic reticulum are found in what type of human body tissue?
    Muscles
  52. This organelle in the smooth ER of your muscle tissue. It stores calcium to facilitate muscle contractions.
    Sarcoplasmic reticulum
  53. These are the folds in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum.
    Cisternae
  54. The ER sends synthesized materials to the Golgi apparatus in these structures:
    Transport vesicles
  55. This organelle is known as the shippping and distribution center of your cell.
    golgi apparatus
  56. True or False: The "cis" side of the golgi faces the ER
    True
  57. Packaged materials leave the Golgi apparatus in what structures?
    secretory vesicles
  58. The side of the Golgi that faces the plasma membrane and releases the secretory vesicles is called the:
    "trans" side
  59. True or False: The Golgi apparatus is a processing center that can deal with immune system issues
    True
  60. Lysosomes play a role in what process?
    phagocytosis
  61. Lysosomes contain these components which aid in the process of phagocytosis.
    digestive enzymes
  62. The cell wall brings food into the cell structure by means of this structure.
    food vacuole
  63. These organelles are instrumental in the process known as "autophaging."
    Peroxisomes
  64. Peroxisomes contain what chemical compound?
    Peroxide
  65. The process of breaking down old and worn out organelles is called:
    autophaging
  66. Proteasomes contain specific digestive enzymes known as:
    proteolytic enzymes
  67. These organelles are the site of ATP synthesis
    Mitochondria
  68. Mitochondria take in O2 and organic molecules, break them down, and release CO2 and this compound:
    ATP
  69. True or False: the more ATP the cell requires, the more mitochondria will be in the cell
    True
  70. The fiber network within the cytoplasm that organizes the cell and provides structural support is the:
    cytoskeleton
  71. The three components of the cytoskeleton are:
    • microfilaments
    • microtubules
    • intermediate filaments
  72. True or False: Only one of the three components of the cytoskeleton works to maintain cell shape.
    False - all three types function maintain cell shape
  73. This cytoskeleton component works to enable muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division.
    microfilaments
  74. This cytoskeleton component is part of the structure of cilia and flagella, and also regulates chromosomal movement during cell division.
    microtubules
  75. This organelle is the microtubule organizing center
    centrosome
  76. Flagella are found in which type of human cell?
    sperm
  77. These 9 sets of triple microtubules are found in the centrosome:
    centrioles
  78. Centrioles perform what function during cell division?
    pull apart chromosomes
  79. This component of cytoskeleton maintains cell shape, anchors organelles, and is a primary component of Keratin:
    intermediate filaments
  80. This jelly-like substance surrounds organelles and is part of the intra-cellular fluid:
    cytosol
  81. Are microvilli attached to the outside of the cell or continuous with the cell membrane?
    continuous with the cell membrane
  82. Do cilia move things into the cell or across the cell membrane?
    across the cell membrane
  83. True or False: Microvilli increase cell membrane surface area allowing for more secretion and absorbtion across cell membrane
    True

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