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Study questions for Chapter 7 "The Cell" for BIOL 189 College of Southern Nevada
The cell was first discovered in the 1600's with the advent of what technological instrument?
What are the four tenets of cell theory?
All cells come from other cells
Cells are the building block of life for plants and animals
Cells are the smallest units of our bodies that can perform vital functions
Cells maintain homeostasis on a cellular level
No matter the size of the organism, relative cell size remains:
The size of an organism is determined not by cell size but by:
The small size of cells facilitates:
diffusion of solutes throughout cell
Name the two common types of cells:
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
What is the primary difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
Location of DNA
What are four commonalities of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells?
Cytosol - part of the ICF
Chromosomes - some type of DNA
Where is the DNA found in a Eukaryotic cell?
In the nucleus
Where is the DNA found in a Prokaryotic cell?
In the nucleoid
True or False: Prokaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles?
Name the two domains that include prokaryotic organisms
This part of a bacteria's anatomy is used for attachment to things?
The nucleoid of a bacteria contains what?
What are the three parts of a bacteria's outer membrane?
Flagella is used for:
The organisms in Domain Archaea are also know as what?
Organisms that thrive in extremely hostile and hot environments are:
Halophiles prefer what type of environment?
Organisms that thrive in extremely hostile and acidic environments are known as:
Alkalophiles prefer which type of environment?
The two types of Eukaryotic cells are:
Plant and Animal
Cell walls in plants are made of:
Cellulose - aids in structure, support, and protection
Pores in the cell wall that lets CO
in and O
True or False: The pores in a plants cell wall can respond to the environment?
These organelles perform photosynthesis. They also give plants their green color.
What are the two primary functions of vacuoles?
Water storage unit
Breaks down waste products
This is the membrane surrounding a plant cells vacuole.
In a Eukaryotic cell, this is the location of the genetic material.
DNA is organized into these structures
Chromosomes, proteins, and other genetic information comprise this cellular material.
What is the function of the nucleolus?
Synthesizes ribosomal RNA which make ribosomes
True or False: The nuclear membrane is double-layered?
Between the layers of the nuclear membrane is the:
This substance is the "cytoplasm" of the nucleus. It also contains the chromatin.
Small holes in the nuclear membrane that let the ribosomes and RNA our of the nucleus are called:
Ribosomes are made up of what two parts?
The large subunit and the small subunit
Free ribosomes can be found floating around in the:
Fixed ribosomes are attached to what organelle?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
These organelles are the location of protein synthesis.
As the protein content of a cell increases the number of ribosomes:
The endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus make up what?
The Endomembrane System
True or False: The endoplasmic reticulum is seperate from the nucleus?
False - it is continous with the nuclear membrane
This type of ER has ribosomes fixed to it
Rough ER's main function is:
True or False: Rough ER is able to synthesize components of the cell membrane including the limited ability to regenerate cell structure.
True or False: Smooth ER has ribosomes attached to it?
This type of ER synthesizes fats or lipids
This type of ER functions to metabolize carbohydrates
True or False: Smooth ER plays a role in the detoxification of drugs and plays a role in drug tolerance.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum are found in what type of human body tissue?
This organelle in the smooth ER of your muscle tissue. It stores calcium to facilitate muscle contractions.
These are the folds in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum.
The ER sends synthesized materials to the Golgi apparatus in these structures:
This organelle is known as the shippping and distribution center of your cell.
True or False: The "cis" side of the golgi faces the ER
Packaged materials leave the Golgi apparatus in what structures?
The side of the Golgi that faces the plasma membrane and releases the secretory vesicles is called the:
True or False: The Golgi apparatus is a processing center that can deal with immune system issues
Lysosomes play a role in what process?
Lysosomes contain these components which aid in the process of phagocytosis.
The cell wall brings food into the cell structure by means of this structure.
These organelles are instrumental in the process known as "autophaging."
Peroxisomes contain what chemical compound?
The process of breaking down old and worn out organelles is called:
Proteasomes contain specific digestive enzymes known as:
These organelles are the site of ATP synthesis
Mitochondria take in O
and organic molecules, break them down, and release CO
and this compound:
True or False: the more ATP the cell requires, the more mitochondria will be in the cell
The fiber network within the cytoplasm that organizes the cell and provides structural support is the:
The three components of the cytoskeleton are:
True or False: Only one of the three components of the cytoskeleton works to maintain cell shape.
False - all three types function maintain cell shape
This cytoskeleton component works to enable muscle contraction, cell motility, and cell division.
This cytoskeleton component is part of the structure of cilia and flagella, and also regulates chromosomal movement during cell division.
This organelle is the microtubule organizing center
Flagella are found in which type of human cell?
These 9 sets of triple microtubules are found in the centrosome:
Centrioles perform what function during cell division?
pull apart chromosomes
This component of cytoskeleton maintains cell shape, anchors organelles, and is a primary component of Keratin:
This jelly-like substance surrounds organelles and is part of the intra-cellular fluid:
Are microvilli attached to the outside of the cell or continuous with the cell membrane?
continuous with the cell membrane
Do cilia move things into the cell or across the cell membrane?
across the cell membrane
True or False: Microvilli increase cell membrane surface area allowing for more secretion and absorbtion across cell membrane