chpt 7

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ht2lvu
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chpt 7
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2011-06-28 02:02:05
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psychology
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chpt 7
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  1. episodic memory
    a subdivision of declarative memory that stores memory for personal events, or "episodes"
  2. thalamus
    involved in encoding sensory memory into STM
  3. flashbulb memory
    a clear & vivid long-term memory of an especially meaningful & emotional event
  4. serial position effect
    • form of interference related to the sequence in which info is presented
    • middle items are less remembered than first or last
  5. recognition
    a retrieval method in which one must identify present stimuli as having been previously presented
  6. maintenance rehearsal
    • a working-memory process in which info is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory
    • involves no active elaboration
  7. long-term memory
    • third of three memory stages with the largest capacity & longest duration
    • stored material organized according to meaning
  8. self-consistency bias
    the commonly held idea that we are more consistent in our attitudes, opinions, and beliefs than we actually are
  9. storage
    one of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the retention of encoded material over time
  10. recall
    a retrieval method in which one must produce previously presented info
  11. engram
    • the physical changes in the brain associated with a memory
    • "memory trace"
  12. TOT phenomenon
    • the inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory
    • "on the tip of their tounge"
  13. eidetic imagery
    • an especially clear & persistent form of memory that is quite rare
    • "photographic memory"
  14. procedural memory
    a division of LTM that stores memories for how things are done
  15. peg word system
    uses association of terms to be remembered with a memorized scheme
  16. reconstruction
    retrieval that can be distorted by adding, dropping, or changing details to complete a pic from incomplete stored info
  17. cerebellum
    processes implicit memories & seems to store procedural memory & classically conditioned memories
  18. hippocampus
    involved in putting info from STM to LTM
  19. encoding
    • one of the three basic tasks of memory
    • involving the modification of information to fit the preferred format for the memory system
  20. semantic memory
    • a subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge
    • meaning of words & concepts
  21. levels-of-processing theory
    the explanation for the fact that infor that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long-term memory (more "deeply" processed) will be remembered better
  22. mood-congruent memory
    a memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match (congruent with) one's mood
  23. retrograde amnesia
    inability to remember info previously stored in memory
  24. information-processing model
    a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, & retrieved
  25. retroactive interference
    a cause of forgetting when newly learned info stops retrieval of previously stored material
  26. priming
    a technique for cuing implicit memories by providing cues that stimulate a memory without awareness of the connection between the cue & retrieved memory
  27. working memory
    • second of three memory stages and most limited in capacity
    • preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal
  28. anterograde amnesia
    the inability to form memories & new info
  29. echoic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
  30. parallel processing
    a natural mode of info processing that involves several info streams simultaneously
  31. memory
    any system- human, animal, or machine- that encodes, stores, & retrievs info
  32. state-dependent memory
    tendency to recall info better when in the same internal state as when the info was encoded
  33. expectancy bias
    in memory- a tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations
  34. retrieval
    • the third basic task of memory
    • involving the location and recovery of information from memory
  35. acoustic encoding
    • the concersion of info to sound patterns in working memory
    • especially semantic info
  36. explicit memory
    memory that has been processed with attention & can be consciously recalled
  37. forgetting curve
    • a graph plotting the amount of retention & forgetting over time for a certain batch of material
    • steep at first, flatter as time goes on
  38. chunking
    • organizing pieces of info into a smaller number of meaningful units (chunks)
    • a process that frees up space in working memory
  39. context-dependent memory
    • physical setting in which a person learns info is encoded along with the info it becomes
    • art of memory trace
  40. iconic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of visual sound
  41. misinformation effect
    the distortion of memory by suggestion or misinformation
  42. amygdala
    involved in the storage of emotion memory
  43. sensory memory
    • first of three memory stages
    • preserving brief sensory impressions of stimuli
  44. elaborative rehearsal
    a working memory process in which info is actively reviewed & related to info already in LTM
  45. implicit memory
    a memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness
  46. confabulation
    process of combining & substitution memories from events other than the one you're to remember
  47. declarative memory
    • a division of LTM that stores emplicit infor, fact memory
    • two subdivisions: episodic memory & semantic memory
  48. automatic processing
    unconscious encoding of info about space, time, & frequency that occurs without interferring with out thinking about other things
  49. concepts
    mental representations of catagories of items or ideas, based on experience
  50. prototype
    an ideal or most representative example of conceptual catagory
  51. overregularziation
    applying a grammatical rule too widely & thereby creating incorrect forms
  52. morphemes
    the meaningful units of language that make up words
  53. grammer
    • the rules of a language
    • how to use words, morphemes, & syntax to produce understandable sentences
  54. language acquisition device (LAD)
    a biologically organized mental structure in the brain that facilitates the learning of language because it is innately programmed with some of the fundamental rules of grammer
  55. method of loci
    a mneumonic technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequnce os familiar physical locations
  56. mnemonics
    • techniques for improving memory
    • making connections between new material & info already in long-tem memory
  57. linguistic relativity hypothesis
    our language guides & determines our thinking
  58. nativist perspective
    idea that the human brain has an innate capacity for acquiring language (language acquisition device) possibly during a critical period of time after birth & that children are born with a universal sense of grammar
  59. behavioral perspective of language
    language is developed by imitating sounds we hear to create words
  60. telegraphic speech
    • meaningful two word sentences, usually a noun & verb
    • usually in the correct oder uttered by 2-yr olds
  61. holophrase
    • one word utterances that convey meaning
    • characteristic of 1 year old
  62. babbling
    • an infant's spontaneous production of speech sounds
    • begins about 4 months old
  63. semantics
    a set of rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes, words, or sentences
  64. syntax
    rules that are used to order words into gramatically sensible sentences
  65. morphemes
    smallest unit of language that has meaning
  66. phonemes
    smallest units of sound in spoken language
  67. convergent thinking
    conventional thinking directed toward a single correct solution
  68. divergent thinking
    thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas
  69. belief bias
    • the tendency for our preexsisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
    • making illogical conclusions seem valid or logical conclusions seem invalid
  70. belief perseverance
    the tendency to hold onto a belief after the basis for the belief is discredited
  71. framing
    • the way an issue is stated
    • how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions & judgements
  72. inductive reasoning
    reasoning from the specific to the general
  73. deductive reasoning
    reasoning from general to specific
  74. metacognition
    thinking about how you think
  75. availability bias
    a faulty heuristic strategu that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled (made available) from personal experience
  76. representative bias
    a faulty heuristic strategy based on the preusmption that once people or events are catagorized they share all the features of other members in that catagory
  77. anchoring bias
    a faulty heuristic cause by basing (anchoring) an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity
  78. hindset bias
    the tendency, after learning about an event, to "second guess" or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance
  79. functional fixedness
    • the inability to percieve a new use for an object associated with a different purpose
    • form of mental set
  80. mental set
    the tendency to respons to a new problem in a manner used for a previous problem
  81. heuristics
    • cognitive strategies or rules of thumb
    • used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks
    • do not guarantee correct solution
  82. algorithms
    problem solving procedures or formulas that guarantee a correct outcome if correctly applies
  83. script
    a cluster of knowledge about sequences of events & actions expected to occur in particular settings
  84. schemas
    a knowledge cluster or general conceptual framework that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people, & situations in one's life
  85. concept hierarchies
    • levels of concept
    • most general to most specific
    • more general level=more specific concepts

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