chpt 14

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chpt 14
2011-06-28 05:14:26

chpt 14
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  1. foot-in-door technique
    agreement to smaller request leads to agreement with larger request later
  2. out-group homogeneity
    belief that members of another group are more similar in their attitudes than they actually are
  3. social facilitation
    an increase in an individual's performance because of being in a group
  4. just-world phenomenon
    • tendency to believe in fairness
    • that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
  5. contact theory
    • if members of two opposing groups are brought together in an emergency situation
    • group cooperation will reduce prejeducial thinking
  6. central route to persuasion
    relatively stable change by carefully scrutinizing facts, statistics, & other info
  7. groupthink
    • Irving Janis
    • an excessive tendency to seek concurrence among group members
    • attempt to conform their opinions to what each believers to be the consensus of the group
  8. cognitive dissonance
    • a highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions
    • especially when their voluntary actions conflict with their attitudes
  9. self-serving bias
    an attributional pattern in which one takes credit for success but denies responsibility for failure
  10. discrimination
    a negative action taken against an individual as a result of his or her group membership
  11. in-group
    the group with which an individual identifies
  12. altruism
    • the unselfish concern of one individual for the welfare of another
    • "helping" behavior
  13. social role
    one of several socially defined patterns of behavior that are expected of persons in a given setting or group
  14. social norms
    • a group's expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its member's attitudes & behaviors
    • how human groups should act
  15. jigsaw classroom
    expert groups of diverse backgrounds learn one part of the lesson and share info in groups
  16. ethnocentrism
    • belief that our culture of social group is superior to others
    • major form of prejudice
  17. scapegoating
    blaming an innocant person or a group for one's own troubles
  18. attribution theory
    way to understand how people explain others' behaviors
  19. group polarization
    when individuals in a group have similar, though not identical, views their opinions become more extreme
  20. situational factors
    • environmental stimuli that affect a person's behavior
    • environment factors why they acted the way they did
  21. scapegoat theory
    • attribute prejudice to frustration
    • when own self worth is in doubt or in jeopardy
  22. reciprocity
    small gift makes others feel obligation to agree to later request
  23. dispositional factor
    • individual personality characteristics that affect a person's behavior
    • holds individual responsible
  24. prejudice
    negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group
  25. social loafing
    a decrease in performance because of being in a group
  26. peripheral route to persuasion
    superficial factors (supermodels and celebrities) used as distractors, leading to less stable change in attitudes
  27. out-group
    those outside the group with which an individual identifies
  28. bystander intervention
    the active involvement of a person in a situation that appears to require his/her aid
  29. diffusion of responsibility
    dilution or weakening of each group member's obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members
  30. asch effect
    a form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgements
  31. fundamental attribution error
    • tendency to emphasize internal causes & ignore external pressures
    • more common in individualistic cultures than in collectisivistic cultures
  32. actor-observer bias
    tendency to focus on our situations and the other person rather than his/her situation when interpreting behavior
  33. door-in-face technique
    someone who makes a very large request we are likely to refuse & follows this up with a smaller one later on
  34. conformity
    the tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes, & opinions of other members of a group
  35. deindividuation
    occurs when group members lose their sense of personal identity & responsibility and the group "assumes" responsibility for their behavior
  36. social psychology
    the branch of psychology that studies the effects of social variables & cognitions on individual behavior & social interactions