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- Skin, muscular dystrophy, sterility, liver degeneration. Severe neurological defects.
Chelation site for Ca2+ for blood clotting. Use in rat poison and blood thinners.
Hemorrhaging, osteoporosis, Ca2+ in arteries. Breast milk less vitamin K --> hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.
- Hemolytic anemia at high doses.
Vitamin B1: Thiamin
- Oxidative carboxylation
- Beri Beri(no transketolase). Muscle wasting. Cyanosis. Tachycardia
- Wernicke Korsakoff (alcoholics)
Vitamin B2: Riboflavin
Prosthetic: FAD and FMN
Psychological. Growth retardation. Light sensitive (destroyed in trtmnt for hyperbilirubinemia).
NAD and NADP+
Pellagra(diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death)
Vasodilator: tachycardia, flushed skin, hypoglycemia, GI problems.
Vitamin B5: Panthothenic Acid
Component of CoA. Stimulate GI mobility after surgery.
Higher rate of infection, fatigue, insomnia, vomiting.
Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine
Cofactor in transaminase, deaminase, decarboxylase. Energy metabolism, AA metabolism, hormones(serotonin, histamine, taurine, GABA), elastin linkage, RNA and heme, arachidonic acid, cholesterol synthesis, nicotinamide synthesis. Trt motion sickness in pregnant and carpal tunnel syndrome.
Weakness, neuromotor seizures, depression, preeclampsia, microcytic hypochromic anemia. Permanent brain damage in newborns.
Vitamin B9 (Vit M): Folate and its derivatives
DNA repair, synthesis, and methylation.
Neural tube defects, macrocytic anemia, peripheral neuropathies. Homocysteine accumulation --> impaired DNA synthesis and Cancer.
Vitamin B12: Cobalamin
Methyl group transfers and recovery of folate.
Megaloblastic anemia. demyelination (no FA biosynthesis). No division of RBC precursors.
Vitamin C: Ascorbate
Regeneration of enzymes involved in Pro and Lys hydroxylation(collagen). Neuropetides C-terminal amidation.
Scurvy-> joints swell, hemorrhages, petechia, tooth loss.
- Covalently bound to Lys as a prosthetic group in carboxylases.
- Formation of antibodies and pancreatic amylase.
- Maculosquamos dermatitis, alopecia, low appetite, nausea, depression, seizures, encephalopathy, glossitis, immune suppression. Avidin from raw eggs.
- Neonatal multiple carboxylase deficiency- holocarboxylase syhtase with reduced affinity for biotin.
- Late onset of MCD- Mother's milk has free biotin but regular milk has it bound and becomes apparent at this time.
Blood clotting, absorption of nutrients, intracellular messenger, lowers cholesterol levels, stabilizes DNA and RNA structure. Prevention and trtment of arthritis.
Bone demineralization, osteoporosis, and osteomalacia. Tetany and high blood pressure.
Fatigue and loss of appetite. Bone demineralization, osteoporosis, and osteomalacia.
- Energy metabolism.
- Phospholipid formation
- phosphorylation for signaling and Transport
- DNA and RNA formation
- Component of cofactors and enzymes
- Regulation of blood pH.
Diarrhea, vomiting, sweat, diuresis. Circulatory failure.
- osmotic pressure of blood and ECF
- gradient --> transport and excitability
- stabilize pH
Diarrhea, vomiting, sweat, diuresis
- regulation of osmotic pressure and pH
- cofactor of enzymes
Loss of muscular coordination. Kidney and heart failure.
Nucleotide cofactor, Ca2+ antagonist, bone formation.
Irritability, vasodilation, muscle cramps, convulsion, heart failure.
Kidney failure, heart failure.
Hemoglobin and enzyme component
Hemochromatosis: Bronze diabetes(melanin inc splenomegaly, liver cirrhosis) hypopituitarism, addisons.
- Microcytic anemia, immune suppression
- Giardia- iron loss
- Uptake of iron.
- Ceruloplasmin, ferroxidase, monoamine and diamine oxidases.
Gastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coma, oliguria, hepatic necrosis, vascular collapse and death.
- Low ceruloplasmin-> normocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukopenia, neutropenia, osteoporosis, flaring or fractures of the metaphyses. inc [cholesterol]
- Down syndrome
- Cutis Laxa (no lysyl oxidase production)
- Wilson's Disease (ATP7B)
- Menke's Kinky hair syndrome- Cu accumulates in intestine, spleen, muscle, kidney.
Fever vomit diarrhea
- RNA and DNA polymerases, carboanhydrase, metallopeptidases, bone development, wound healing.
- Photophobia, night blindness, delayed sexual development, xerosis, keratomalacia. preeclampsia.
- Acrodermatitis enteropathica- autosomal disease.
Thyroxine metabolism, convert carotene to vitamin A, protein synthesis, carb absorption.
- Wolff Chaikoff effect
MO + W
Diarrhea, anemia, slow growth, prevents use of Cu2+
- Cofactor, transfer electrons, retain F- in teeth
- Reduced fertility, high mortality of infant and mother.
- Autosomal recessive
- Toxin metabolites accumulation--> inc muscle tone, rigid posture, seizures.
- Glutathione peroxidase
- iodothyronine deiodinases
- thioredoxin reductases
- selenophosphate synthase
- Keshan disease- cardiomyopathy, multifocal necrosis, fibrous replacement, myocytolysis.
- Kashin-Beck disease- osteoarthritis in preadolescence, necrotic degeneration of chondrocytes, dwarfism joint deformation, muscle pain, defective finger nails and RBC.
- alkali disease- dermatitis, loss of hair, nail deformation and loss.
- Def: metaplasia of respiratory epithelium into squamos tissue.
- Controls gene expression through nuclear retinoid receptors.