Hormones

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Author:
thatasian
ID:
92365
Filename:
Hormones
Updated:
2011-06-29 23:21:42
Tags:
Hormones Biology
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Description:
MCAT Biology Hormones
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  1. Releasing and inhibiting factors (peptides)
    • Gland: hypothalamus
    • Target: anterior pituitary
    • Effect: modify activity
  2. Growth Hormone (GH) (peptide)
    • Gland: Anterior pituitary
    • Effect: inc bone/muscle growth; inc cell turnover rate
  3. Prolactin (peptide)
    • Gland: anterior pituitary
    • Target: mammary gland
    • Effect: milk production
  4. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (tropic)
    • Gland: Anterior pituitary
    • Target: Thyroid
    • Effect: Incr synthesis & release of TH
  5. Andrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) (peptide)
    • Gland: Anterior Pituitary
    • Target:adrenal cortex
    • Effect: incr growth & secretory activity of adrenal cortex
  6. Lutenizing Hormone (LH) (peptide) (gonadotropic)
    • Gland: Anterior Pituitary
    • Target: Ovary, Testes
    • Effect: Ovulation, testosterone synthesis
  7. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Gland: Anterior Pituitary
    • Target: Ovary, Testes
    • Effect: follicle development, spermatogenesis
  8. Antidieuretic Hormone (ADH, vasopressin) (peptide)
    • Gland: Posterior Pituitary
    • Target: Kidney
    • Effect: water retention
  9. Oxytocin (peptide)
    • Gland: Posterior Pituitary
    • Target: breast, uterus
    • Effect: milk letdown, contraction
  10. Thyroid Hormone (TH, thyroxine) (modified amino acid)
    • Gland: Thyroid
    • Effect: Child- necessary for physical & mental development
    • Adult- incr metabolic rate & temp
  11. Calcitonin (peptide)
    • Gland: Thyroid (Thyroid C cells)
    • Target: bone, kidney
    • Effect: lowers serum [Ca2+]
  12. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) (peptide)
    • Gland: Parathyroids
    • Target: bone, kidney, small intestine
    • Effect: raises serum [Ca2+]
  13. Thymosin (children only) (peptide)
    • Gland: Thymus
    • Target: Thymus
    • Effect: T cell development during childhood
  14. Epinephrine (modified amino acid)
    • Gland: Adrenal medulla
    • Effect: sympathetic stress response (rapid)
  15. Cortisol ("glucocorticoid") (steroid)
    • Gland: Adrenal Cortex
    • Effect: Longer-term stress response; incr blood [glucose]; incr protein catabolism; decr inflamation & immunity; many other
  16. aldosterone ("mineralocorticoid") (steroid)
    • Gland: Adrenal cortex
    • Target: kidney
    • Effect: incr Na+ reabsorption to incr BP
  17. sex steroid
    • Gland: Adrenal Cortex
    • Effect: an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization or feminization
  18. Insulin (peptide)
    • Gland: Endocrine pancreas (β cells in islets of Langerhans)
    • Effect: decr blood [glucose]; incr glycogen & fat storage
    • Absent or ineffective in diabetes mellitus
  19. glucagon (peptide)
    • Gland: Endocrine pancreas (α cells of islets of Langerhans
    • Effect: incr blood [glucose], decr glycogen & fat storage
  20. Somatostatin (SS)
    • Gland: Endocrine pancreas (δ cells of islets of Langerhans)
    • Effect: inhibits many digestive processes
  21. Testosterone (steroid)
    • Gland: testes
    • Effect: male characteristics, spermatogenesis
  22. Estrogen (steroid)
    • Gland: Ovaries/ placenta
    • Effect: female characteristics, endometrial growth
  23. Progesterone (steroid)
    • Gland: ovaries/ placenta
    • Effect: endometrial secretion, pregnancy
  24. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) (peptide)
    • Gland: Heart
    • Target: kidney
    • Effect: incr urination to decr blood pressure
  25. Erythropoietin (peptide)
    • Gland: Kidney
    • Target: bone marrow
    • Effect: incr RBC synthesis

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