Bio 004,CH16, College of the Desert

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Bio 004,CH16, College of the Desert
2011-07-18 16:33:34
Chapter16 Bio4 plants fungi move onto land

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  1. Plant

    Multicellular, terrestrial eukaryote that produces organic molecules by photo-synthesis.

  2. Root
    Structure that anchors the plant in substrate absorbs and transports minerals and water, and stores food.
  3. Shoots
    Stems and leaves of a plant.
  4. Stomata
    Pores in leaves that allow CO2 to enter and H2O and O2 to exit.
  5. Guard Cells

    Cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata.

  6. Xylem
    • Transports water and minerals from roots to leaves.

  7. Phloem
    Transports nutrients from leaves to roots, flowers, and new growth areas.
  8. Aquatic plants

    Rely on water for reproduction (“swimming sperm”).

  9. Terrestrial plants
    Rely on wind for reproduction (“flying sperm” – pollen).
  10. Bryophytes
    • (Mosses)

    • 1. Sperm required water for reproduction.

    • 2. Developed waxy cuticle to prevent dehydration.

    • 3. Developed gametangium for developing embryo.

    • 4. Gametangium: Reproductive structure that houses and protects the gametes of the plant (sperm & egg).

  11. Alternation of Generations
    Life cycle in which a multicellular diploid form alternates with a multicellular haploid form in plants and green algae.
  12. Sporophyte
    Diploid form; produces spores.
  13. Gametophyte
    Haploid form; produces gametes.
  14. Archegonia
    Produce female gametes (eggs).
  15. Antheridia
    Produce male gametes (sperm).
  16. Ferns
    • 1. Sperm require water for reproduction.
    • 2. Developed vascular tissue (xylem & phloem).
    • 3. Major component of fossil fuels - coal, oil, & natural gas - formation beginning 360 mya.
  17. Gymnosperms
    • Conifers
    • 1. Developed cones bearing pollen & eggs.
    • 2. Developed pollen for wind reproduction.
    • 3. Non-deciduous.
  18. Deciduous
    Trees that lose all their leaves at the same time
  19. Non-deciduous

    Trees that shed their leaves continually throughout the year.

  20. Terrestrial
    Adaptations of Seed Plants
    • 1. Pollen: Male gamete carried by wind.
    • 2. Seed: Embryo + food supply + seed coat.
    • 3. Germinate: Emergence of the embryo through the seed coat as a seedling under favorable conditions.
  21. Angiosperms
    • (Flowering plants)
    • 1. Developed flowers bearing pollen and eggs
    • 2. Developed fruit to protect/disperse seeds
    • 3. Pollen requires wind/animals for dispersal
    • 4. 250,000 species; major supplier of food Deciduous.
  22. Fungi
    Multicellular, terrestrial, hetero-trophic eukaryote that is also saprophytic.
  23. Saprophytes

    Organisms that break down dead and decaying organic material.

  24. Absorption
    • Means of acquiring small organic molecules from the surrounding environment.
    • Food is digested externally by strong digestive enzymes
  25. Hyphae
    Minute threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane and cell wall.
  26. Mycelium
    Interwoven mat of hyphae that forms the feeding network. Increases surface area for absorption.
  27. Characteristics of Fungi – Reproduction
    • Fungi reproduce by releasing spores. *Sometimes numbering in the trillions from a single fungus.

    • *For water or wind dispersal
  28. Ecological Impact of Fungi
    • Saprophytic decomposers
    • Example: Bracket fungi decomposing fallen tree.
  29. Parasitism
    Relationship in which two organisms live in close contact, in which one organism benefits (parasite) while the other is harmed (host).
  30. Commercial Uses of Fungi
    • Penicillium: Is a common mold responsible for the production of penicillin – the first antibiotic developed against bacteria.
    • Food: Mushrooms, blue cheese, bread, and alcoholic beverages are all derived from various forms of fungi.
  31. Toxic Fungi
    • Mycotoxin: Potentially deadly poisons produced by some fungi that can cause illness, hallucinations, insanity, and even death.
    • Toadstools: Generally applied to toxic fungi, while most fungi are interchange-ably refer-red to as mushrooms. (SEAT OF DEATH).
  32. Mycorrhizae
    • Fungi that grow inside 80 – 90% of all plants’ root hairs.
    • a. Increase water & nutrient uptake.
    • b. Provide growth hormone.
    • c. Recycle elements such as C, N, P.
    • d. Plants supply fungi with nutrients and a habitat.
  33. Lichens
    • Symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae.
    • a. Fungi provide moist habitats to algae, while algae provide nutrients to fungi.
    • b. As lichens, these symbiotes can withstand harsh conditions.
  34. Fill in the blanks.
    • 1. Petal
    • 2. Stigma
    • 3. Style
    • 4. Pistil
    • 5. Overy
    • 6. Ovule
    • 7. Sepal
    • 8. Filament
    • 9. Anther
    • 10. Stamen