Bio 004,CH16, College of the Desert
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Multicellular, terrestrial eukaryote that produces organic molecules by photo-synthesis.
Structure that anchors the plant in substrate absorbs and transports minerals and water, and stores food.
Stems and leaves of a plant.
Pores in leaves that allow CO2 to enter and H2O and O2 to exit.
Cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata.
Transports nutrients from leaves to roots, flowers, and new growth areas.
Rely on water for reproduction (“swimming sperm”).
Rely on wind for reproduction (“flying sperm” – pollen).
1. Sperm required water for reproduction.
2. Developed waxy cuticle to prevent dehydration.
3. Developed gametangium for developing embryo.
4. Gametangium: Reproductive structure that houses and protects the gametes of the plant (sperm & egg).
Alternation of Generations
Life cycle in which a multicellular diploid form alternates with a multicellular haploid form in plants and green algae.
Diploid form; produces spores.
Haploid form; produces gametes.
Produce female gametes (eggs).
Produce male gametes (sperm).
- 1. Sperm require water for reproduction.
- 2. Developed vascular tissue (xylem & phloem).
- 3. Major component of fossil fuels - coal, oil, & natural gas - formation beginning 360 mya.
- 1. Developed cones bearing pollen & eggs.
- 2. Developed pollen for wind reproduction.
- 3. Non-deciduous.
Trees that lose all their leaves at the same time
Trees that shed their leaves continually throughout the year.
Adaptations of Seed Plants
- 1. Pollen: Male gamete carried by wind.
- 2. Seed: Embryo + food supply + seed coat.
- 3. Germinate: Emergence of the embryo through the seed coat as a seedling under favorable conditions.
- (Flowering plants)
- 1. Developed flowers bearing pollen and eggs
- 2. Developed fruit to protect/disperse seeds
- 3. Pollen requires wind/animals for dispersal
- 4. 250,000 species; major supplier of food Deciduous.
Multicellular, terrestrial, hetero-trophic eukaryote that is also saprophytic.
Organisms that break down dead and decaying organic material.
- Means of acquiring small organic molecules from the surrounding environment.Food is digested externally by strong digestive enzymes
Minute threads of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane and cell wall.
Interwoven mat of hyphae that forms the feeding network. Increases surface area for absorption.
Characteristics of Fungi – Reproduction
Ecological Impact of Fungi
- Saprophytic decomposers
- Example: Bracket fungi decomposing fallen tree.
Relationship in which two organisms live in close contact, in which one organism benefits (parasite) while the other is harmed (host).
Commercial Uses of Fungi
- Penicillium: Is a common mold responsible for the production of penicillin – the first antibiotic developed against bacteria.
- Food: Mushrooms, blue cheese, bread, and alcoholic beverages are all derived from various forms of fungi.
- Mycotoxin: Potentially deadly poisons produced by some fungi that can cause illness, hallucinations, insanity, and even death.
- Toadstools: Generally applied to toxic fungi, while most fungi are interchange-ably refer-red to as mushrooms. (SEAT OF DEATH).
- Fungi that grow inside 80 – 90% of all plants’ root hairs.
- a. Increase water & nutrient uptake.
- b. Provide growth hormone.
- c. Recycle elements such as C, N, P.
- d. Plants supply fungi with nutrients and a habitat.
- Symbiotic relationship between fungi and algae.
- a. Fungi provide moist habitats to algae, while algae provide nutrients to fungi.
- b. As lichens, these symbiotes can withstand harsh conditions.
Fill in the blanks.
- 1. Petal
- 2. Stigma
- 3. Style
- 4. Pistil
- 5. Overy
- 6. Ovule
- 7. Sepal
- 8. Filament
- 9. Anther
- 10. Stamen
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