List nine cytopathic effects of viral infections.
Viral infection may result in one or several of the following cytocidal (kill cells) or noncytocidal effects in infected cells:
1. Inhibit macromolecular synthesis (DNA, RNA, protein). Some viruses irreversibly stop mitosis (herpes simplex virus).
2. Release of lysosomal enzymes, resulting in cell death.(punching holes in your lysosomes)
3. Inclusion bodies: make granules in cytoplasm or nuclei of infected cells. May contain viral parts.
4. Syncytium: Fusion of several adjacent cells to form a single giant cell (cytoplasmic mass).
5. Metabolic changes in host without visibly damaging infected cells. May increase hormone or protein production by infected cells, which in turn affects other cells.
6. Interferons: viral infection induces cells to produce interferons, but the host's cell's DNA actually codes for the interferon. This protects neighboring uninfected cells from viral infection
7. Antigenic changes on cell surface, causing destruction of infected cells by immune system. (putting tags on other cells making your immune system attack you)
8. Chromosomal changes: Breakage and incorporation of oncogenes.
9. Transformation: Abnormal cells that have lost contact inhibition.(which forms lumps)