3. Fungi and Algae

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Author:
cornpops
ID:
92483
Filename:
3. Fungi and Algae
Updated:
2011-07-06 17:02:48
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PH162A midterm1
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Description:
public health microbiology lecture 3
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  1. algae
    • eukaryotic
    • contains a nucleus and chloroplasts and a cell wall (usually)
  2. algae nutrition
    • most are autotrophs - can synthesize all their organic compounds from inorganic compounds
    • contain chloroplasts with chlorophyll to carry out photosyntehsis
    • some are heterotrophs - need additional nutrients from the environment
  3. phototactic
    some algae sense light and move toward it, improves photosynthesis
  4. algae locomotion
    • can posses flagella with 9+2 microtubule arrangement, have between 1-4
    • gliding motion in diatoms
  5. algae protection
    • thick cell wall of cellulose most exaggerate in dinoflagellates
    • diatoms have complex appearance to cell wall, absorb silica from environment
  6. algae cysts
    • similar to bacterial endospore
    • thick outer coat, lower metabolism, no nutrients
    • protects against drying
  7. algae asexual reproduction
    • spore production - genetically identical, disperse readily
    • fragmentation of filaments - each fragment is a new individual
    • binary fission
    • multiple fission
  8. algae sexual reproduction
    union of 2 haploid cells of different mating types to form a diploid individual with a different compostion than each parent
  9. algae classification
    • based on cell presence and composition as well as any special structures
    • forms of motility
    • divisions
  10. chlorophyta
    • green algae
    • sexual and asexual reproduction
    • cellulose, CaCO3 cell wall
    • most non-motile
  11. euglenophyta
    • plant-like characteristics - chloroplasts
    • animal-like characteristics - no cell wall, hetertrophic behavior
    • phototactic- red eye spot
    • asexual reproduction by binary fission
  12. chrysophyta
    • golden-brown, yellow-green algae, diatoms
    • diatoms glide, others have flagella
    • reproduction mostly asexual
  13. pyrrophyta
    • dinoflagellates - cellulose plates
    • reproduction asexual by fission
  14. beneficial aspects of algae
    • primary producers of O2 from phytoplankton
    • important part of food chain
    • diatomaceous earth
    • agar
  15. detrimental aspects of algae
    • unpleasant taste to drinking water
    • fouling up swimming pools and beaches
    • shellfish poisoning - only human disease caused by algae
  16. shellfish poisoning
    • dinoflagellates produce extracellular toxin
    • released into water during algal bloom (red tide)
    • concentrated by shellfish who eat algae
  17. amnesic shellfish poisoning
    • domoic acid - heat stable
    • short-term memory loss
  18. paralytic shellfish poisoning
    • saxitoxin - heat labile
    • paralysis face, arms, legs
  19. fungi
    • eukaryotic
    • have cell wall
    • no chloroplasts
  20. two types of fungi
    • yeast
    • mold
  21. mold
    • multicellular, joined together in filaments called hyphae
    • collection of hyphae called mycelium
  22. dimorphic fungi
    both yeast and mold form depending on environmental conditions
  23. fungi nutrition
    • heterotrophs: must obtain nutrients from environment
    • yeast absorb directly, prefer moisture
    • molds also absorb directly
  24. heterotroph
    must obtain nutrients from environment
  25. fungi protection
    • thick cell walls - composed of chitin, peptidomannans
    • capsules - protect against phagocytosis
  26. fungi asexual reproduction
    • yeast - budding, type of fission
    • molds - aerial mycelia
  27. fungi sexual reproduction
    • fusion of specialized sex cells which are haploid
    • - rare, results in diploid zygote
  28. fungi classification
    • hyphal structure
    • type of reproduction
  29. beneficial aspects of fungi
    • decomposers of waste
    • food preparation
    • drugs used for treating human disease - antibiotics, ergot, enzymes in biological research, experimental organism for research
  30. detrimental aspects of fungi
    • food spoilage
    • shower mold
    • allergies
  31. fungi poisonings
    • aflatoxin - cause liver damage, cancer
    • ergot poisoning - from mold that grow on grains, causes convulsions and hallucinations
  32. infectious disease of fungi
    • dimorphic fungi
    • opportunistic fungi

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