Brain Structure and Function

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Brain Structure and Function
2011-06-30 09:39:21
Brain Structure Function

Brain Structure and Function
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  1. Spinal Cord
    General Function: simple relexes

    • Specific Function: Controls simple stretch and tendon relexes
    • Controls primitive processes such as walking, urination, and sex organ function
  2. Medulla
    General Function: involuntary functions

    • Specific Function: Controls autonomic processese such as blood pressure, blood flow, heart rate, respiratory rate, swallowing, vomiting
    • Controls reflex reactions such as coughing or sneezing
    • relays sensory information to the cerebellum and thalamus
  3. Pons
    General Function: Relay station and balance

    • Specific Function: controls antigravity posture and balance
    • Connects the spinal cord and medulla with upper regions of the brain
    • Relays information to the cerebellum and thalamus
  4. Cerebellum
    General Function: movement coordination

    • Specific Function: Integrating center
    • Coordination of complex movement, balance and posture, muscle tone, spatial equilibrium
  5. Midbrain
    General Function: Eye movement

    • Specific Function: Integration of visual and auditory information
    • Visual and auditory relexes
    • Wakefulness and consciousness
    • Coordinates information on posture and muscle tone
  6. Thalamus
    General Function: integrating center and relay station

    • Specific Function: Relay center for somatic (conscious) sensation
    • Relays information between the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex
  7. Hypothalamus
    General Function: Homeostasis and behavior

    • Specific Function: Controls homeostatic functions (such as temperature regulation, fluid balance, appetite) through both neural and hormonal regulation
    • Controls primitive emotions such as anger, rage, and sex drive
    • Controls the pituitary gland
  8. Basal nuclei
    General Function: Movement

    • Specific Function: Regulate body movement and muscle tone
    • Coordination of learned movement patterns
    • General pattern of rhythm movements (such as controlling the cycle of arm and leg movements when walking)
    • Subconscious adjustments of conscious movements
  9. Limbic system
    General Function: emotion, memory, and learning

    • Specific Function: Controls emotional states
    • Links conscious and unconscious portions of the brain
    • Helps with memory storage and retrieval
  10. Cerebral cortex
    General Function: Perception, skeletal muscle movement, integration center

    • Specific Function: Divided into four lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital) with specialized subfunctions
    • Conscious through processes and planning, awareness and sensation
    • Intellectual function (intelligence, learning, reading, communication)
    • Abstract thought and reasoning
    • Memory storage and retrieval
    • Initiation and coordination of voluntary movement
    • Complex motor patterns
  11. Corpus callosum
    General Function: Connection

    Specific Function: connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres