Microbiology

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Author:
dys1965
ID:
92528
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2011-06-30 12:40:50
Tags:
Transcription Translation Genes
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Description:
CH14: Transcription and Translation of Genes
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  1. Explain transcription:
    - The process by which RNA polymerase uses a DNA template to produce mRNA
  2. Define operon:
    - Two or more genes in a bacterial chromosome that are transcribed into one mRNA molecule.

    - Eukaryotic cells do not have operons
  3. Describe translation:
    - The process of rRNA's translating the mRNA codons into proteins by polymerizing the correct amino acids in the correct order
  4. Function of RNA polymerase:
    - Used to produce the RNA copy of each gene
  5. Function of mRNA:
    - Template for the coded genetic information in DNA to be translated into protein
  6. Function of ribosome:
    - Enzymes that carry out the process of translation
  7. Function of codon:
    - Nucleotide triplet that codes for a specific amino acid
  8. Transcription:
    - The process by which RNA polymerase uses a DNA template to produce mRNA
  9. Operon:
    - Two or more genes in a bacterial chromosome that are transcribed into one mRNA molecule

    - Eukaryotic cells do not have operons
  10. Translation:
    - The process of rRNA's translating the mRNA codons into proteins by polymerizing the correct amino acids in the correct order
  11. Polymerization:
    - A chem reaction where two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of origional molecule

    - Reduplication of parts of an organism

    - Bonding of two or more monomers to form polymer
  12. What is coupled transcription and translation:
    - Simultaneous synthesis of RNA and protein that occurs in the cytoplasm of prokeryotes
  13. What does a triplet of bases encode:
    - each triplet codon in mRNA codes for one amino acid
  14. Prokeryote:
    - Kingdom monera (most primative/ancient known forms of life)

    - Any cellular organism that has no nucleus, no organelles in the cytoplasm except ribosomes

    - Reproduce asexually and include bacteria and blue-green algae
  15. anticodon:
    - the transfer RNA binding side for the codon
  16. cistrons:
    - Individual genes in an operon
  17. Coupling:
    - The series of enzymes needed to complete a task and produce an end product, such as an amino acid
  18. Metabolic pathway:
    - The series of enzymes needed to complete a task and produce an end product, such as an amino acid
  19. Pathway:
    - A set of genes used for a complete task
  20. Polysomes:
    - Multiple ribosomes held together by the mRNA thread; indicative of very active protein synthesis
  21. ribosomal RNA:
    - Translates mRNA into amino acid chains
  22. Triplet:
    Three ribonucleotides in a row; one codon

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