Micro Exam 2

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rleighn25
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92533
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Micro Exam 2
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2011-07-06 15:49:09
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micro lecture
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Chapter 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 4.9
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  1. Classification
    The arrangement of organisms into groups
  2. Taxonomy
    The science fo biological classification; it consists of three parts: classification, nomenclature and identification
  3. Identification
    determination of taxon to which an isolate belongs
  4. Nomenclature
    assignment of names to taxa
  5. Systematics
    The scientific study of organisms with the ultimate objective of characterizing and arranging them in an orderly manner; often considered synonymous with taxonomy
  6. Define strain
    a population of organisms that descends from a single organism or pure culture isolate
  7. Define phenons
    organisms with great similarity are grouped together and separated from dissimilar organisms
  8. Define Dendogram
    a treelike diagram that is used to summarize mutual similarities and relationships between organisms
  9. Define akinetes
    specialized, non motile, dormant, thick-walled resting cells formed by some cyanobacteria
  10. Bordetella pertussis
    is a gram negative, aerobic coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.
  11. Clostridium
    botulism, tetanus, food poisoning
  12. Streptomyces somaliensis
    actinomycetoma (an infection of subcutaneous tissue that produce lesions and lead to swelling, abscesses, and even bone destruction. Pathogenic to humans
  13. Thermoactinomyces vulgaris
    allergic disease of the respiratory system in agricultural workers
  14. Mycoplasma
    contagious bovine plueropneumonia in cattle, chronic respiratory disease in chicken, pneumonia in swine, and primary atypical pnueumonia in humans
  15. Enterococcus
    Urinary tract infection, and endocarditis
  16. Helicobacter pylori
    gastritis and peptic ulcers
  17. Rickettsia rickettsii
    rocky mountain spotted fever
  18. Yersinia
    Plague and reactive arthritis
  19. Neisseria
    gonorhoeae and bacterial meningitis
  20. Actinomycetes
    actinomycoses, ocular infections and peridontal disease
  21. Mycobacterium
    tuberculosis
  22. Vibrio
    cholera
  23. Psuedomonas
    UTI, respiratory system infections, dermatitis, soft tissue infections, bacteremia and a variety of systemic infection
  24. Staphylococcus epi
    endocarditis (wound, surgical and UTI)
  25. Streptococcus mutans
    dental caries
  26. Treponema pallidum
    syphilis
  27. E. coli
    UTI
  28. Corynebacteria
    diphtheria
  29. Coxiella burnettii
    Q fever
  30. Bacillus
    food poisoning, anthrax
  31. Propionobacterium
    body odor and acne
  32. Gardnerella
    bacterial vaginitis
  33. Streptococcus pyrogenes
    strep throat, glomerulonephritis, and rheumatic fever
  34. What is the order of classifications below the domain or kingdom?
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  35. Define phonetic system
    a classification system that group organism together based in the similarity of their observable characteristics
  36. Define phylogentic system
    a classification system based on evolutionary relationship rather than the general similiarity of characteristics
  37. Spirochetes
    A flexible, spiral shaped bacterium. Syphilis and lyme disease
  38. Salmonella
    typhoid fever and gastroenteritis
  39. Staphylococcus aureus
    food poisoning, skin and wound infections
  40. Listeria monocytogenes
    a pathogen of humans and other animals and causes listeriosis, an important food infection
  41. Haemophilus influenzae type b
    a major human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases including meningitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and bronchitis
  42. Mineralization
    the conversion of organic nutrients into inorganic material during microbial growth and metabolism
  43. Nitrification
    the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate
  44. Conidiospores
    spores that are not enclosed in a sac but produces at the tips or sides of the hypha
  45. Sporangiospores
    develop within a sac (sporangium) at a hyphal tip
  46. oocyst
    cyst formed around a zygote of malaria and related protozoa
  47. Elementary bodies
    a small, dormant body that serves as the agent of transmission between host cells in the chlamydial life cycle
  48. Heterocysts
    specialized cells of cyanobacteria that are the sites if nitrogen fixation
  49. chlorosomes
    elongated, intramembranes vesicles found in the green sulfur and nonsulfur bacteria; they contain light harvesting pigments. Sometimes called chlorobium vesicles
  50. trichromes
    a row or filment of microbial cells that are in close contact with one another over a large area
  51. thallus
    a type of body that is devoid of root, stem, or leaf; characteristics of fungi
  52. Species
    • collection of strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains
    • collection of organisms that share the same sequences in their core housekeeping genes
  53. biovars
    biochemical or physiological differences
  54. serovars
    have distinctive antigenic properties
  55. morphovar
    differ morphologically
  56. catalase
    an enzyme that catalyzes the destruction of hydrogen peroxide
  57. coagulase
    an enzyme that induces blood clotting; it is characteristically produced by pathogenic staphylococci
  58. substrate mycelium
    in the actinomycetes and fungi, hyphae that are on the surface and may penetrate into the solid medium on which the microbes are growing
  59. aerial mycelium
    the mat of hyphae formed by actinomycetes or fungi that grows above the substrate, imparting a fuzzy appearance to colonies
  60. numerical taxonomy
    the grouping by numerical methods of taxonomic units into taxa based on their character states
  61. beta hemolysis
    • complete lysis of red blood cells
    • seen as clear zone around colony on blood agar
  62. alpha hemolysis
    • incomplete lysis of red blood cells
    • seen as greenish zone around colony on blood agar
  63. gamma hemolysis
    the agar under and around the colony is unchanged
  64. Genus
    well defined group of one or more species that is clearly separated from other genera.
  65. Parts of a spirochetes: protoplasmic cylinder, axial filament
    • spirochetes are slender, long, bacteria with a flexible, helical shape.
    • The central protoplasmic cylinder contains cyto plasm and the nucleoid is bounded by a plasma membrane and a gram negative cell wall.
    • the whole complax of periplasmic flagella in the axial filament, lies inside a flexible outer sheath
  66. What is the correct way (s) to represent a particular organism with the binomial system?
    • Microbiologist name microorganism by using binomial system.
    • The first part is the generis name (the genus)
    • The second is species name, is stable; the oldest epithet for a particular organism takes precedence and must be used
  67. How are computers used?
    computer analyzes using pattern recognition software as well as software that calculates phylogentic relationships.
  68. What type of photosynthetic bacteria is capable of oxygenic photosynthesis?
    Cyanobacteria
  69. What is the infectious stage of chlamydiae?
    Elementary body
  70. What are electron sources of anoxygenic photosythetic bacteria?
    Hydrogen sulfide, Sulfur, hydrogen and organic molecules
  71. Which bacteria deposit granules outside of the cell?
    green sulfur bacteria
  72. What is degraded by Bacteroides in the intestinal tract?
    Cellulose, pectin, complex carbohydrates
  73. Which bacteria deposit granules inside the cell?
    purple bacteria
  74. What bacteria are radiation resistant?
    Deinococcus
  75. What bacteria contain both chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B?
    Prochlorphytes- which lacks phycobilins
  76. What is the largest group of proteobacteria?
    gammaproeobacteria
  77. What bacteria grow symbiotically within root nodules?
    rhizobium
  78. What genera fix nitrogen non symbiotically?
    Azotobacter
  79. What bacteria cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients?
    psuedomonas aeruginosa
  80. What places is Veillonella part of normal microflora?
    mouth and gastointestinal tract
  81. What are characteristics of Mycoplasmas?
    • resistant to penicillin
    • susceptiple to lysis by osmotic shock
    • lack peptidoglycan
    • they are the smallest organisms capable of independent reproduction
  82. What bacteria are used in production of buttermilk and cheese?
    lactobacillus lactis
  83. What % of the human fecal flora is bacteroides?
    20%
  84. What is the morphology of actinomycetes?
    are a bacteria with a fungal morphology, they transition forms from bacteria and fungi.
  85. What species of clostridium is pathogenic?
    Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum
  86. Define Binary Fission
    asexual reproduction in which a cell or organism separates into two identical daughter cells
  87. Conjugation
    • the form of gene transfer and recombination in procaryotes that requires cell to cell contact
    • a complex form of sexual reproduction commonly employed by protists
  88. Taxa
    a group into which related organisms are classified
  89. What kingdom is all prokaryotic organisms classifed?
    Monera
  90. How many kingdoms are organisms classied?
    • Six
    • Plants, Animals, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, fungi, protist
    • PAAEFP
  91. What are characteristics of Lactobacillus?
    • long, regular rods, non sporing, rarely motile
    • fermentative, at least half the end product is lactate; requires rich. complex media; catalase and cytochrome negative
  92. What are characteristics of propionibacterium?
    • pleomorphic nonmotile rods, may be forked or branched; non sporing
    • fermentation produces propionate and acetate and often gas; catalase positive
  93. What type of cell wall dos cyanobacteria have?
    has a thick, gelatinous cell wall
  94. What type of organisma are chlamydias?
    Chlamydia is both an organism and a disease. Chlamydia is the genus name of small obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria.
  95. What bacillius species is used as biological insecticide?
    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis
  96. What are characteristics of thermoactinomyces?
    branched, septate mycelium resembles those of actinomycetes
  97. What are the general characteristics of protists?
    • All protists are eukaryotic.
    • That is, all protists have cells with nuclei. In addition, all protists live in
    • moist environments.

    • Protists can be unicellular or
    • multicellular. Some protists are heterotrophs, while others are autotrophs
  98. What are the types of vacuoles found in protists?
    • Contractile vacuoles
    • secretory vacuoles
    • food vacuoles
  99. What are the types of pseudopods found in protozoa?
    • lobopodia
    • filopodia
    • reticulopodia
  100. What is the most common method of asexual reproduction in protists?
    binary fission
  101. What characteristics of diatoms?
    • photosynthetic and have a frustule composed of 2 halves
    • can reproduce asexually
  102. What group is responsible for toxiz red tides?
    Dinoflagellates
  103. What are characteristics of dinoflagellate?
    • single-celled organisms. There are nearly 2000 known living species. Some are
    • bacterial in size, while the largest, Noctiluca, can be up to two
    • millimeters in size. This is large enough to be seen by the unaided eye.
    • move using a tail-like structure called a flagellum.
  104. What type of environment does require a contracile vacuole?
    • ocean
    • river
    • swamp
  105. What does apical complex do and where is it located?
    • is located at one end of the cell
    • aids in penetration of host cells
  106. Which of apicomplexan caused coccidiosis?
    • eimera
    • Isospora
  107. What ype of nucleus is most common observed in protists?
    vesicular nucleus
  108. What are the characteristics of Entamoeba histolytica?
    • cysts pass thorugh the stomach unharmed
    • grazes on the bacteria in the intestine
    • produces enzymes that degrade epithelial tissue
  109. Members if the genus thermoactinomyces
    • produces endospores
    • commonly found in damp haystacks and compost piles
    • are thermophiles
  110. What filamentous bacteria is used in antibiotic production?
    • bacitracin
    • gramicidin
    • polymyxin
  111. What shape are actinomyces?
    straight or slightly curved rods that typically have swollen or club ends

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