Micro Exam 2
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The arrangement of organisms into groups
The science fo biological classification; it consists of three parts: classification, nomenclature and identification
determination of taxon to which an isolate belongs
assignment of names to taxa
The scientific study of organisms with the ultimate objective of characterizing and arranging them in an orderly manner; often considered synonymous with taxonomy
a population of organisms that descends from a single organism or pure culture isolate
organisms with great similarity are grouped together and separated from dissimilar organisms
a treelike diagram that is used to summarize mutual similarities and relationships between organisms
specialized, non motile, dormant, thick-walled resting cells formed by some cyanobacteria
is a gram negative, aerobic coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.
botulism, tetanus, food poisoning
actinomycetoma (an infection of subcutaneous tissue that produce lesions and lead to swelling, abscesses, and even bone destruction. Pathogenic to humans
allergic disease of the respiratory system in agricultural workers
contagious bovine plueropneumonia in cattle, chronic respiratory disease in chicken, pneumonia in swine, and primary atypical pnueumonia in humans
Urinary tract infection, and endocarditis
gastritis and peptic ulcers
rocky mountain spotted fever
Plague and reactive arthritis
gonorhoeae and bacterial meningitis
actinomycoses, ocular infections and peridontal disease
UTI, respiratory system infections, dermatitis, soft tissue infections, bacteremia and a variety of systemic infection
endocarditis (wound, surgical and UTI)
food poisoning, anthrax
body odor and acne
strep throat, glomerulonephritis, and rheumatic fever
What is the order of classifications below the domain or kingdom?
Define phonetic system
a classification system that group organism together based in the similarity of their observable characteristics
Define phylogentic system
a classification system based on evolutionary relationship rather than the general similiarity of characteristics
A flexible, spiral shaped bacterium. Syphilis and lyme disease
typhoid fever and gastroenteritis
food poisoning, skin and wound infections
a pathogen of humans and other animals and causes listeriosis, an important food infection
Haemophilus influenzae type b
a major human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases including meningitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and bronchitis
the conversion of organic nutrients into inorganic material during microbial growth and metabolism
the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate
spores that are not enclosed in a sac but produces at the tips or sides of the hypha
develop within a sac (sporangium) at a hyphal tip
cyst formed around a zygote of malaria and related protozoa
a small, dormant body that serves as the agent of transmission between host cells in the chlamydial life cycle
specialized cells of cyanobacteria that are the sites if nitrogen fixation
elongated, intramembranes vesicles found in the green sulfur and nonsulfur bacteria; they contain light harvesting pigments. Sometimes called chlorobium vesicles
a row or filment of microbial cells that are in close contact with one another over a large area
a type of body that is devoid of root, stem, or leaf; characteristics of fungi
- collection of strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains
- collection of organisms that share the same sequences in their core housekeeping genes
biochemical or physiological differences
have distinctive antigenic properties
an enzyme that catalyzes the destruction of hydrogen peroxide
an enzyme that induces blood clotting; it is characteristically produced by pathogenic staphylococci
in the actinomycetes and fungi, hyphae that are on the surface and may penetrate into the solid medium on which the microbes are growing
the mat of hyphae formed by actinomycetes or fungi that grows above the substrate, imparting a fuzzy appearance to colonies
the grouping by numerical methods of taxonomic units into taxa based on their character states
- complete lysis of red blood cells
- seen as clear zone around colony on blood agar
- incomplete lysis of red blood cells
- seen as greenish zone around colony on blood agar
the agar under and around the colony is unchanged
well defined group of one or more species that is clearly separated from other genera.
Parts of a spirochetes: protoplasmic cylinder, axial filament
- spirochetes are slender, long, bacteria with a flexible, helical shape.
- The central protoplasmic cylinder contains cyto plasm and the nucleoid is bounded by a plasma membrane and a gram negative cell wall.
- the whole complax of periplasmic flagella in the axial filament, lies inside a flexible outer sheath
What is the correct way (s) to represent a particular organism with the binomial system?
- Microbiologist name microorganism by using binomial system.
- The first part is the generis name (the genus)
- The second is species name, is stable; the oldest epithet for a particular organism takes precedence and must be used
How are computers used?
computer analyzes using pattern recognition software as well as software that calculates phylogentic relationships.
What type of photosynthetic bacteria is capable of oxygenic photosynthesis?
What is the infectious stage of chlamydiae?
What are electron sources of anoxygenic photosythetic bacteria?
Hydrogen sulfide, Sulfur, hydrogen and organic molecules
Which bacteria deposit granules outside of the cell?
green sulfur bacteria
What is degraded by Bacteroides in the intestinal tract?
Cellulose, pectin, complex carbohydrates
Which bacteria deposit granules inside the cell?
What bacteria are radiation resistant?
What bacteria contain both chlorophyll A and chlorophyll B?
Prochlorphytes- which lacks phycobilins
What is the largest group of proteobacteria?
What bacteria grow symbiotically within root nodules?
What genera fix nitrogen non symbiotically?
What bacteria cause infections in cystic fibrosis patients?
What places is Veillonella part of normal microflora?
mouth and gastointestinal tract
What are characteristics of Mycoplasmas?
- resistant to penicillin
- susceptiple to lysis by osmotic shock
- lack peptidoglycan
- they are the smallest organisms capable of independent reproduction
What bacteria are used in production of buttermilk and cheese?
What % of the human fecal flora is bacteroides?
What is the morphology of actinomycetes?
are a bacteria with a fungal morphology, they transition forms from bacteria and fungi.
What species of clostridium is pathogenic?
Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum
Define Binary Fission
asexual reproduction in which a cell or organism separates into two identical daughter cells
- the form of gene transfer and recombination in procaryotes that requires cell to cell contact
- a complex form of sexual reproduction commonly employed by protists
a group into which related organisms are classified
What kingdom is all prokaryotic organisms classifed?
How many kingdoms are organisms classied?
- Plants, Animals, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, fungi, protist
What are characteristics of Lactobacillus?
- long, regular rods, non sporing, rarely motile
- fermentative, at least half the end product is lactate; requires rich. complex media; catalase and cytochrome negative
What are characteristics of propionibacterium?
- pleomorphic nonmotile rods, may be forked or branched; non sporing
- fermentation produces propionate and acetate and often gas; catalase positive
What type of cell wall dos cyanobacteria have?
has a thick, gelatinous cell wall
What type of organisma are chlamydias?
Chlamydia is both an organism and a disease. Chlamydia is the genus name of small obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria.
What bacillius species is used as biological insecticide?
Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis
What are characteristics of thermoactinomyces?
branched, septate mycelium resembles those of actinomycetes
What are the general characteristics of protists?
- All protists are eukaryotic.
- That is, all protists have cells with nuclei. In addition, all protists live in
- moist environments.
- Protists can be unicellular or
- multicellular. Some protists are heterotrophs, while others are autotrophs
What are the types of vacuoles found in protists?
- Contractile vacuoles
- secretory vacuoles
- food vacuoles
What are the types of pseudopods found in protozoa?
What is the most common method of asexual reproduction in protists?
What characteristics of diatoms?
- photosynthetic and have a frustule composed of 2 halves
- can reproduce asexually
What group is responsible for toxiz red tides?
What are characteristics of dinoflagellate?
- single-celled organisms. There are nearly 2000 known living species. Some are
- bacterial in size, while the largest, Noctiluca, can be up to two
- millimeters in size. This is large enough to be seen by the unaided eye.
- move using a tail-like structure called a flagellum.
What type of environment does require a contracile vacuole?
What does apical complex do and where is it located?
- is located at one end of the cell
- aids in penetration of host cells
Which of apicomplexan caused coccidiosis?
What ype of nucleus is most common observed in protists?
What are the characteristics of Entamoeba histolytica?
- cysts pass thorugh the stomach unharmed
- grazes on the bacteria in the intestine
- produces enzymes that degrade epithelial tissue
Members if the genus thermoactinomyces
- produces endospores
- commonly found in damp haystacks and compost piles
- are thermophiles
What filamentous bacteria is used in antibiotic production?
What shape are actinomyces?
straight or slightly curved rods that typically have swollen or club ends
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