Biology Ch. 8
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Name 2 things DNA accomplishes.
- Store Information
- Direct the synthesis of proteins
- Chemically change mutate genetic characteristic
What 3 molecules make up nucleic acids?
- Sugar Molecules
- Phosphate Group
- Nitrogenous Base
What type of bond holds DNA 2 strands together?
What does DNA polymerase do?
Polymerase builds new DNA strands
What does helicase do?
Helicase separates double stranded DNA
Name 2 differences between RNA and DNA
- DNA is double stranded and cannot leave the nucleus.
- RNA is single stranded and can leave the nucleus.
What is transcription?
Transcription is the process where the information in DNA is copied into RNA.
What is translation?
Translation is the process where RNA is turned into a protein.
Where does transcription take place in the cell?
What does a promoter sequence and terminator sequence do for RNA polymerase?
- The promoter sequence and RNA polymerase bind together in order to start building an RNA strand.
- The terminator sequence tells the RNA polymerase to stop transcribing.
Name 3 types of RNA that participate in translation and describe what their function is?
- mRNA = Messenger (carries the recipe for making the protein)
- tRNA = Transfer (reads the codons and brings the correct amino acids)
- rRNA = Ribose RNA (used to read the recipe and build the amino acid chain)
What are codons?
Sets of three nucleotides that code specific amino acids.
What do ribosomes do and where are they located in the cell?
Organelles that build proteins and they are located in the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum.
What is the start codon and what amino acid does it code for?
The start codon is usually AUG and methionine.
What are the nitrogenous base?
- Uracil (RNA)
What is Gene expression?
Its how a cell makes a protein from the information in a gene.
How do cells regulate how much of a given protein is made?
By controlling how much mRNA is available for translation.
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