MGKT Chapter 6
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Consumer Decision-Making Process
A five-step process used by consumers when buying goods or services.
Result of an imbalance between actual and desired states.
- Any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses:
When does Recognition of Unfulfilled Wants happen
- •When a current product isn’t performing properly
- •When the consumer is running out of a product
- •When another product seems superior to the one currently used
Internal Information Search
Recall information in memory
External Information search
•Seek information in outside environment
Group of brands, resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose
Evaluation of Alternatives and Purchase
- Analyze product attributes
- Use cutoff criteria
- Rank attributes by importance
To buy or not to buy Marketing
Determines which attributes are most important in influencing a consumer’s choice
Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions.
Consumers can reduce dissonance by:
- Seeking information that reinforces positive ideas about the purchase
- Avoiding information that contradicts the purchase decision
- Revoking the original decision by returning the product
Five Factors Influencing Decisions
- Level of consumer involvement
- Length of time to make decision
- Cost of good or service
- Degree of information search
- Number of alternatives considered
Routine Response Behavior
- Little involvement in selection process
- Frequently purchased low cost goods
- May stick with one brand
- Buy first/evaluate later
- Quick decision
Limited Decision Making
- Low levels of involvement
- Low to moderate cost goods
- Evaluation of a few alternative brands
- Short to moderate time to decide
Extensive Decision Making
- High levels of involvement
- High cost goods
- Evaluation of many brands
- Long time to decide
- May experience cognitive dissonance
Factors Determining the Level of Consumer Involvement
- Previous Experience
- Perceived Risk of Negative Consequences
- Social Visibility
High-involvement purchases require:
Extensive and informative promotion to target market
Low-involvement purchases require:
In-store promotion, eye-catching package design, and good displays.Coupons, cents-off, 2-for-1 offers
Components of Culture
- Material artifacts
Culture is. . .
Enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct.
A homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group.
A group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms.
Social Class Measurements
- Other Variables
The Impact of Social Class on Marketing
- Indicates which medium to use for advertising
- Helps determine the best distribution for products
- Reference Groups
- Opinion Leaders
- Family Members
An individual who influences the opinion of others.
Purchase Process Roles in the Family
- •Decision Makers
Consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others
Consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with feelings or beliefs
Consumer remembers only that information that supports personal beliefs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
A method of classifying human needs and motivations into five categories in ascending order of importance.
An experience changes behavior
Not learned through direct experience
An organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world.
A learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object.
Explain Changing Attitudes
- •Change beliefs about the brand’s attributes
- •Change the relative importance of these beliefs
- •Add new beliefs
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