Cell Respiration

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Geoff
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92689
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Cell Respiration
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2011-07-01 17:00:13
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BIOL Chapter
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Study cards for Chapter 9 "Cell Respiration" BIOL 189 CSN
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  1. What is the equation that represents cellular respiration?
    C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP
  2. A process that breaks down food and makes ATP is a:
    catabolic pathway
  3. Does oxidation involve the gain or loss of electrons?
    loss of electrons
  4. Does reduction involve the gain or loss of electrons?
    gain of electrons (charge is reduced)
  5. The element or molecule that is the electron donor is what type of agent?
    reducing agent
  6. Is the oxidizing agent the electron donor or electron acceptor?
    electron acceptor
  7. True or False: In a redox reaction, Hydrogen molecules will accompany the movement of electrons.
    True
  8. Which compound in the cellular respiration equation is being oxidized?
    glucose (C6H12O6)
  9. Which compound in the cellular respiration equation is reduced?
    oxygen (6 O2 --> 6 H2O)
  10. Which compound in the cellular respiration equation acts as an oxidizing agent?
    oxygen
  11. Which compound in the cellular respiration equation acts as the reducing agent, or electron donor?
    glucose
  12. NAD+ and FAD are coenzymes that function as:
    electron carriers
  13. What are the products of the reaction NAD+ + 2 H?
    NADH + H+
  14. The transfer of electrons and one hydrogen molecule to NAD+ is catalyzed by what enzyme?
    dehydrogenase
  15. FAD functions in energy transport by:
    binding up electrons
  16. As you transport electrons you are also transporting what?
    energy
  17. The breakdown of glucose in a series of steps is an example of a:
    controlled reaction
  18. True or False: An uncontrolled reaction is more efficient for cellular work than a controlled reaction.
    False - a controlled reaction has less wasted energy
  19. True or False: Energy is more efficiently harvested from controlled reactions.
    True
  20. Why do we break down glucose in a series of steps rather than all at once?
    Energy is given off in smaller amounts leading to relatively small loss of usable energy
  21. True of False: A mitochondrion has an outer and inner membrane?
    True
  22. Identify the area between a mitochondrion's outer and inner membrane.
    intermembrane space
  23. The inside of a mitochondria is known as the:
    mitochondrial matrix
  24. This name is given to the folds of the mitochondrial matrix that increase surface (work) area.
    Cristae
  25. Ribosomes are located in what part of a mitochondrion?
    the matrix
  26. From which genetic donor do we get mitochondrial DNA?
    our mother
  27. What is the first stage of cellular respiration?
    glycolysis
  28. The transition reaction is the ____ stage of cellular respiration.
    second
  29. What is the third stage of cellular respiration?
    the Krebs cycle
  30. The Krebs cycle is also know as the:
    citric acid cycle
  31. True or False: Oxidative Phosphorylation is the fourth stage of cellular respiration.
    True
  32. Oxidative Phosphorylation, the fourth stage of cellular respiration, is comprised of what two processes?
    electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
  33. Which stages of celluar respiration are examples of substrate-level phosphorylation?
    glycolysis, transition reaction, Krebs cycle
  34. The direct transfer of phosphate with the help of an enzyme is known as:
    substrate-level phosphorylation
  35. Phosphate added to ADP by means of a redox reactions is known as:
    oxidative phosphorylation
  36. How are substrate-level and oxidative phosphorylation similar?
    both faciliate the reaction ADP + P --> ATP
  37. Do we gain or lose ATP during the energy payoff phase of glycolysis?
    gain 4 ATP
  38. Is ATP gained or lost during the energy investment phase of glycolysis?
    2 ATP are lost
  39. What are the two phases of glycolysis?
    energy investment and energy payoff
  40. Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
    the cytosol
  41. What is/are the beginning substrates for glycolysis?
    glucose
  42. True of False: Fats and proteins can also be used to fuel aerobic cellular respiration.
    True
  43. Glucose is a _______ carbon sugar.
    six
  44. How many net ATP are produced during glycolysis?
    2 ATP
  45. True or False: Glycolysis requires oxygen.
    False - glycolysis does not require oxygen
  46. What is/are the end products of glycolysis?
    2 NADH and 2 pyruvates
  47. How many NADH are produced during glycolysis?
    2 NADH
  48. Pyruvate is a _____ carbon sugar.
    three
  49. What by-products are produced during glycolysis?
    2 H2O
  50. What is/are the beginning substrates for the transition reaction?
    2 pyruvates
  51. One glucose nets how many pyruvic acids?
    two
  52. What by-products are produced during the transition reaction?
    2 CO2
  53. What are the end products of the transition reaction?
    2 acetyl-CoA and 2 NADH
  54. Which two phases of cellular respiration each produce 2 NADH?
    glycolysis and the transition reaction
  55. Where in the cell does the transition reaction occur?
    in the mitochondria
  56. How many ATP are produced during the transition reaction?
    none
  57. Does the transition reaction require oxygen?
    yes
  58. What are the two primary steps of the transition reaction?
    • 1) Carboxyl group is broken off of the pyruvate
    • 2) Coenzyme A attaches to the remaining acetate
  59. A _____ group is broken off of pyruvate in the transition reaction.
    carboxyl
  60. The carboxyl group that is broken off during the transition reaction is discarded as:
    carbon dioxide
  61. CoA is added to acetate during the transition reaction to form:
    acetyl-CoA
  62. What process is used by cells without mitochondria to synthesize ATP?
    glycolysis
  63. Where in the cell does the Krebs cycle occur?
    the mitochondrial matrix
  64. What are the end products of the Krebs cycle?
    6 NADH and 2 FADH2
  65. For each glucose molecule, how many times in the Krebs cycle completed?
    twice
  66. 6 NAD+, 2 FAD, and 2 acetyl-CoA are the beginning substrates for which phase of cellular respiration?
    the Krebs cycle
  67. What are the beginning substrates for the Krebs cycle?
    • 6 NAD+
    • 2 FAD
    • 2 acetyl-CoA
  68. 6 NAD+, 2 FAD, and _________ are the beginning substrates of the Krebs cycle.
    2 acetyl-CoA
  69. What by-products are produced during the Krebs cycle?
    4 CO2
  70. True or False: The Krebs cycle requires oxygen.
    True
  71. How many net ATP are produced during the Krebs cycle?
    2 ATP
  72. Which two phases of cellular respiration each produce 2 net ATP?
    glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
  73. Does oxidative phosphorylation require oxygen?
    yes
  74. What by-products are produced during oxidative phosphorylation?
    4 H2O
  75. What are the end products of oxidative phosphorylation?
    32-34 ATP
  76. What is/are the beginning substrates of oxidative phosphorylation?
    • 10 NADH
    • 2 FADH2
  77. Where do the 10 NADH required for oxidative phosphorylation come from?
    • 2 from glycolysis
    • 2 from transition reaction
    • 6 from the Krebs cycle
  78. Where in the cell does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
    the inner membrane of mitochondria
  79. What is the basic purpose of ATP synthase?
    phosphorylate ADP
  80. True or False: ATP synthase is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria.
    True
  81. What molecule moves through the ATP synthase channel causing the stalk to spin?
    Hydrogen ions
  82. The spinning stalk of ATP synthase catalyzed the _____, allowing phosphorylation of ADP to occur.
    knob
  83. Is hydrogen pumped in or out as electrons are being stripped off of NADH or FADH2?
    out
  84. As hydrogen is being pumped into the intermembrane, is it moving with or against the concentration gradient?
    against the gradient
  85. True or False: Electrons are transported from carrier to carrier embedded in the inner membrane, releasing energy that ultimately leads to the phosphorylation of ADP.
    True
  86. What molecule acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?
    oxygen
  87. True or False: As Hydrogen ions move down the concentration gradient into the mitochondrial matrix, they power ATP synthase as water powers a mill.
    True
  88. Is fermentation aerobic or anaerobic?
    anaerobic
  89. What types of organisms perform lactic acid fermentation?
    animals and some bacteria
  90. How many ATP are made in lactic acid fermentation?
    2 ATP
  91. How are the 2 ATP synthesized in lactic acid fermentation?
    glycolysis is performed as normal
  92. What happens to the 2 pyruvate products of glycolysis during lactic acid fermentation.
    they are broken down into lactate
  93. The ionized form of lactic acid is known as:
    lactate
  94. Lactate is the product of:
    lactic acid fermentation
  95. Where is lactic acid broken down in the body?
    the liver
  96. How many ATP are produced from alcohol fermentation?
    2 from normal glycolysis
  97. What three steps occur to pyruvate during alcohol fermentation?
    • carboxyl group is stripped and released as CO2
    • acetate converted to acetylaldehyde
    • acetylaldehyde is broken down to ethanol
  98. What two products result from alcohol fermentation?
    CO2 and ethanol
  99. What organisms would use alcohol fermentation?
    yeast
  100. Is fermentation faster or slower than cellular respiration?
    faster

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