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Study cards for Chapter 9 "Cell Respiration" BIOL 189 CSN
What is the equation that represents cellular respiration?
+ 6 O
--> 6 CO
+ 6 H
O + ATP
A process that breaks down food and makes ATP is a:
Does oxidation involve the gain or loss of electrons?
loss of electrons
Does reduction involve the gain or loss of electrons?
gain of electrons (charge is reduced)
The element or molecule that is the electron donor is what type of agent?
Is the oxidizing agent the electron donor or electron acceptor?
True or False: In a redox reaction, Hydrogen molecules will accompany the movement of electrons.
Which compound in the cellular respiration equation is being oxidized?
Which compound in the cellular respiration equation is reduced?
oxygen (6 O
--> 6 H
Which compound in the cellular respiration equation acts as an oxidizing agent?
Which compound in the cellular respiration equation acts as the reducing agent, or electron donor?
and FAD are coenzymes that function as:
What are the products of the reaction NAD
+ 2 H?
NADH + H
The transfer of electrons and one hydrogen molecule to NAD
is catalyzed by what enzyme?
FAD functions in energy transport by:
binding up electrons
As you transport electrons you are also transporting what?
The breakdown of glucose in a series of steps is an example of a:
True or False: An uncontrolled reaction is more efficient for cellular work than a controlled reaction.
False - a controlled reaction has less wasted energy
True or False: Energy is more efficiently harvested from controlled reactions.
Why do we break down glucose in a series of steps rather than all at once?
Energy is given off in smaller amounts leading to relatively small loss of usable energy
True of False: A mitochondrion has an outer and inner membrane?
Identify the area between a mitochondrion's outer and inner membrane.
The inside of a mitochondria is known as the:
This name is given to the folds of the mitochondrial matrix that increase surface (work) area.
Ribosomes are located in what part of a mitochondrion?
From which genetic donor do we get mitochondrial DNA?
What is the first stage of cellular respiration?
is the ____ stage of cellular respiration.
What is the third stage of cellular respiration?
the Krebs cycle
The Krebs cycle is also know as the:
citric acid cycle
True or False: Oxidative Phosphorylation is the fourth stage of cellular respiration.
Oxidative Phosphorylation, the fourth stage of cellular respiration, is comprised of what two processes?
electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
Which stages of celluar respiration are examples of substrate-level phosphorylation?
glycolysis, transition reaction, Krebs cycle
The direct transfer of phosphate with the help of an enzyme is known as:
Phosphate added to ADP by means of a redox reactions is known as:
How are substrate-level and oxidative phosphorylation similar?
both faciliate the reaction ADP + P --> ATP
Do we gain or lose ATP during the energy payoff phase of glycolysis?
gain 4 ATP
Is ATP gained or lost during the energy investment phase of glycolysis?
2 ATP are lost
What are the two phases of glycolysis?
energy investment and energy payoff
Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?
What is/are the beginning substrates for glycolysis?
True of False: Fats and proteins can also be used to fuel aerobic cellular respiration.
Glucose is a _______ carbon sugar.
How many net ATP are produced during glycolysis?
True or False: Glycolysis requires oxygen.
False - glycolysis does not require oxygen
What is/are the end products of glycolysis?
2 NADH and 2 pyruvates
How many NADH are produced during glycolysis?
Pyruvate is a _____ carbon sugar.
What by-products are produced during glycolysis?
What is/are the beginning substrates for the transition reaction?
One glucose nets how many pyruvic acids?
What by-products are produced during the transition reaction?
What are the end products of the transition reaction?
2 acetyl-CoA and 2 NADH
Which two phases of cellular respiration each produce 2 NADH?
glycolysis and the transition reaction
Where in the cell does the transition reaction occur?
in the mitochondria
How many ATP are produced during the transition reaction?
Does the transition reaction require oxygen?
What are the two primary steps of the transition reaction?
1) Carboxyl group is broken off of the pyruvate
2) Coenzyme A attaches to the remaining acetate
A _____ group is broken off of pyruvate in the transition reaction.
The carboxyl group that is broken off during the transition reaction is discarded as:
CoA is added to acetate during the transition reaction to form:
What process is used by cells without mitochondria to synthesize ATP?
Where in the cell does the Krebs cycle occur?
the mitochondrial matrix
What are the end products of the Krebs cycle?
6 NADH and 2 FADH
For each glucose molecule, how many times in the Krebs cycle completed?
, 2 FAD, and 2 acetyl-CoA are the beginning substrates for which phase of cellular respiration?
the Krebs cycle
What are the beginning substrates for the Krebs cycle?
, 2 FAD, and _________ are the beginning substrates of the Krebs cycle.
What by-products are produced during the Krebs cycle?
True or False: The Krebs cycle requires oxygen.
How many net ATP are produced during the Krebs cycle?
Which two phases of cellular respiration each produce 2 net ATP?
glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
Does oxidative phosphorylation require oxygen?
What by-products are produced during oxidative phosphorylation?
What are the end products of oxidative phosphorylation?
What is/are the beginning substrates of oxidative phosphorylation?
Where do the 10 NADH required for oxidative phosphorylation come from?
2 from glycolysis
2 from transition reaction
6 from the Krebs cycle
Where in the cell does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
the inner membrane of mitochondria
What is the basic purpose of ATP synthase?
True or False: ATP synthase is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria.
What molecule moves through the ATP synthase channel causing the
The spinning stalk of ATP synthase catalyzed the _____, allowing phosphorylation of ADP to occur.
Is hydrogen pumped in or out as electrons are being stripped off of NADH or FADH
As hydrogen is being pumped into the intermembrane, is it moving with or against the concentration gradient?
against the gradient
True or False: Electrons are transported from carrier to carrier embedded in the inner membrane, releasing energy that ultimately leads to the phosphorylation of ADP.
What molecule acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?
True or False: As Hydrogen ions move down the concentration gradient into the mitochondrial matrix, they power ATP synthase as water powers a mill.
Is fermentation aerobic or anaerobic?
What types of organisms perform lactic acid fermentation?
animals and some bacteria
How many ATP are made in lactic acid fermentation?
How are the 2 ATP synthesized in lactic acid fermentation?
glycolysis is performed as normal
What happens to the 2 pyruvate products of glycolysis during lactic acid fermentation.
they are broken down into lactate
The ionized form of lactic acid is known as:
Lactate is the product of:
lactic acid fermentation
Where is lactic acid broken down in the body?
How many ATP are produced from alcohol fermentation?
2 from normal glycolysis
What three steps occur to pyruvate during alcohol fermentation?
carboxyl group is stripped and released as CO
acetate converted to acetylaldehyde
acetylaldehyde is broken down to ethanol
What two products result from alcohol fermentation?
What organisms would use alcohol fermentation?
Is fermentation faster or slower than cellular respiration?