Unit 3 Drug list

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face12
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Unit 3 Drug list
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2011-07-02 01:55:02
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ACC Santana Pharmacology
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Drug Cards for Unit 3
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  1. Class: Inhibitor of Metabolism (Sulfa-Drugs)
    MOA: Blocks the synthesis of folic acid, an essential nutrient in bacterial growth. As a result, growth and replication are arrested (bacteriostatic effect).
    Side effects: Skin rashes, nausea & vomiting, HIV patients show fever & diarrhea
    Therapeutic use: ear infections, urinary tract infections. Bacterial infections
    Special Note: Used in combination with Trimethoprim(Trimpex) to make Co-Trimoxazole
    Sulfamethoxazole (Gantanol)
  2. Class: Inhibitor of Metabolism (Sulfa-Drugs)
    MOA: Blocks the conversion of folic acid to its active form (THFA), thereby arresting bacterial growth and replication (bacteriostatic effect)
    Side effects: Skin rashes, nausea & vomiting, HIV patients show fever & diarrhea
    Therapeutic use: ear infections, urinary tract infections. Bacterial infections
    Special Note: Used in combination with Sulfamethoxazole(Gantanol) to make Co-Trimoxazole
    Trimethoprim(Trimpex)
  3. Class: Inhibitor of Metabolism (Sulfa Drugs)
    MOA: Blocks the conversion and synthesis of folic acid to achieve a bacteriostatic effect
    Therapeutic uses: ear infections, urinary tract infections, caused by bacteria
    Special note: this is a combo of sulfamethoxazole and trimoxazole used for a greater antimicrobial effect
    Co-Trimoxazole(Bactrim Septra)
  4. Class:B-Lactam (Penicillin)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall Synthesis
    MOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cel gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.
    Therapeutic Use: Antibacterial for gram positive staphylococcal infection//Ear,nose,throat, respiratory infections
    Special: small narrow spectrum (Genration 1)
    Side effects: Nausea, rashes, diarrhea, allergies
    Penicillin G
  5. lass:B-Lactam (Penicillin)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall Synthesis
    MOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cell gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.
    Therapeutic Use: Antibacterial-Special: small narrow spectrum (Genration 1)/Ear,nose,throat, respiratory infections//Ear, nose, throat, respiratory infections
    Special Note:In the past was most effective penicillin against staphylococcal infections, but a strain of staph aureus evolved and became resistant to methicillin
    Side effects: Nausea, rashes, diarrhea, allergies
    Methicillin(Staphcillin)
  6. Class: B-Lactam(Penicillin)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall Synthesis
    MOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cell gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.
    Therapeutic Use: Antibacterial-Special: small narrow spectrum (Genration 2)/Ear,nose,throat, respiratory infections//great for Ear
    Special Note: Extended spectrum effective against gram(-) bacilli, but not penicillinases. Typically used in combo with b-lactamase inhibitors like clavulanic acid (augmentin), which protects the drug from penicillinases. The Pawns of a chess game effect
    Side effects: Nausea, rashes, diarrhea, allergies
    Amoxicillin(Amoxil)
  7. Class: B-Lactam(Cephalosporins)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall Synthesis
    MOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cell gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.
    Therapeutic Use: Antibacterial for gram positive staphylococcal infection//Ear,nose,throat, respiratory infections
    Special Note: First gene with similar spectrum as Pen G with resistance to penicillinase (gram+)
    Side effects: Nausea, rashes, diarrhea, allergies
    Cephalexin (Keflex)
  8. Class: B-Lactam(Cephalosporins)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall Synthesis
    MOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cell gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.
    Therapeutic Use: Antibacterial for gram positive staphylococcal infection//Ear,nose,throat, respiratory infections
    Special Note: Second Geration-greater activity against gram(-), specifically H. Influenzae, Enterobactor aerogenes, and Neisseria
    Side effects: Nausea, rashes, diarrhea, allergies
    Cefuroxime(Kefurox)
  9. Class: B-Lactam(Cephalosporins)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall SynthesisMOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cell gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.Therapeutic Use: Antibacterial for gram positive staphylococcal infection//Ear,nose,throat, respiratory infections
    Special Note: Third Generation-enhanced activity against gram(-) bacili, but less activity against gram(+)
    Side effects: Nausea, rashes, diarrhea, allergies
    Ceftriaxone(Rocephin)
  10. Class: B-Lactam(Cephalosporins)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall Synthesis
    MOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cell gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.
    Therapeutic Use: Antibacterial for gram positive staphylococcal infection//Ear,nose,throat, respiratory infections
    Special Note: Broadest spectrum B-lactam antibiotic currently available. Active against penicillinase- producing gram(-) & gram(+) organisms, anaerobes, and pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Imipenem/Cilistatin
  11. Class: B-Lactam(Cephalosporins)/Inhibitor of Cell Wall Synthesis
    MOA: Generally interferes with synthesis of the bacterial cell wall which subsequently cannot maintain the necessary osmotic concentration with the surrounding body fluids. The cell gains water, swells, and bursts (lysis). Bactericidal effect on susceptible bacteria. The shingled roof effect.
    Therapeutic Use: Use is restricted to treating resistant staphlococcal infections, pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, and endocarditis
    Special Note: Side effects can be a serious problem( must monitor peaks and troughs) MRSA
    Vancomycin (Vancocin)
  12. Class: Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis/Tetracycline
    MOA: Target the bacterial ribosome at either the 30S subunit(Tetracyclines) blocking tRNA from binding to the mRNA-ribosome complex, and thereby inhibiting protein synthesis
    Therapeutic use: Broad spectrum antibiotics; Bacteriostatic
    Side Effects: Gastric discomfort, Bone deposition, phototoxicity, Superinfections
    Tetracycline(Achromycin) and Mynocycline(Minocin)
  13. Class: Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis/Aminoglycosides
    MOA: Target the bacterial ribosome at either the 30s & 50s subunits, blocking the tRNA from binding to the mRNA-ribosome complex, and thereby inhibiting protein synthesis
    Therapeutic uses: effective only against aerobic organisms, bacteriocidal
    Side effects: (must monitor "Peak and trough". Ototocixicity & Nephrotoxicity
    Gentamicin (Garamycin) & Tombramycin(Nebcin)
  14. Class: Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis/Macrolides
    MOA: Target the bacterial ribosome at either the 50s subunits, blocking the tRNA from binding to the mRNA-ribosome complex, and thereby inhibiting protein synthesisTherapeutic uses: effective only against aerobic organisms, bacteriocidal
    Special Note: Similar spectrum of Pen G, plus chlamydia, therfore they are used in patients allergic to penicillins. Also resisitance is becoming a serious problem.
    Side effects: Epigastric distress, ototoxicity, drug interactions are plentiful
    Erythmycin(E-Mycin) & Azithromycin (Zithromax)
  15. Class: Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid Function. Fluoroquinolones
    MOA: Inhibit replication of bacterial nucleic acids by interfering the the action of DNA gyrase
    Therapeutic uses: Urinary& respiratory tract infections
    Side Effects: CNS Problems(Dizziness, lightheadedness), Phototoxicity
    Special Note: Contraindicated in children under 18 due to cartilage erosion reported inbanimal studies
    Ciprofloxacin(Cipro) & Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
  16. Class: Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid Function
    MOA: Various & unknown; block transcription by interacting with bacterial DNA and inhibiting RNA synthesis. Bacteriocidal for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Therapeutic Use: Treatment of tuberculosisi to minimize resistance
    Side Effects: N/V/D, Hepatotoxicity
    Neuropathy
    Special Note: Typically used in multiple drug combinations for long periods of time (6-9) months
    Rifampin (Rimactane), Isoniazid (INH), and Pyrazinaide (PZA)
  17. Class: Antifungal for Disease producing superficial Mycoses
    MOA: interfere with th synthesis of ergosterol, the essential component for the fungal cell membrane, leading to a suppression of further growth (fungistatic)
    Therapeutic Use: superficial dermatophytes infections of skin and hair(eg tina pedis, tinea capitis, tinea corporis)
    Side effects: Infusion related Toxicity(Fever, chills, N/V/H, hypotension) , Renal related toxicity,
    Special Note: Toxicity restricts group for topical application only
    Clotrimazole (Lotrimin AF)
  18. Class: Antifungal for Diseas producing superficial Mycoses
    MOA: binds to ergosterol on fungal membrane producing a change in the cell's permeability, which leads to leakage of nutrients and ions, and ultimately cell death
    Therapeutic Use: Useful superficial Candida Albicans infections (candidiasis of the oral cavitiy) available as liquid for swish and swallow
    Side effects: Infusion related Toxicity(Fever, chills, N/V/H, hypotension) , Renal related toxicity,
    Special Note: Too toxic for systemic use
    Nystatin (Mycostatin)
  19. Class: Antifungal for Disease-Producing Subcutaneous and Systemic Mycoses
    MOA: Interfere with the synthesis of ergosterol, the essential component for the fungal cell membrane, leading to a suppression of further growth (fungistatic)
    Therapeutic Use: mucocutaneous (candidiasis) and systemic (life-threatening) infections (candidiemia, cryptococcus neoformans)
    Side effects: Infusion related Toxicity(Fever, chills, N/V/H, hypotension) , Renal related toxicity,
    Special note: oral Azole with greater TI vs topical Azoles
    Flucanozole (Difulucan)
  20. Class: Antifungal for Disease-Producing Subcutaneous and Systemic Mycoses
    MOA: binds to ergosterol on fungal membrane producing a change in the cell's permeability, which leads to leakage of nutrients and ions, and ultimately cell death
    Therapeutic Use: Drug of Choice for all types of life threatening systemic infections(candidemia, blastomycoses, histoplamosis, cryptococcosis, aspergillosis)
    Side effects: Infusion related Toxicity(Fever, chills, N/V/H, hypotension) , Renal related toxicity,
    Special Note: Broad spectrum antifungal
    Amphotericin B
  21. Class: Antiprotozoal & Antihelminths
    MOA: interferes with unique essential enzyme found only in the protozoa (Entamoeba, Giardia, Trichomonas vaginalis)
    Therapeutic use: Extensive us in the treatment of infections caused by anaerobic cocci and anaerobic gram (-) bacilli(bacteroides) and anaerobic gram(+) bacilli (clostridia)
    Side Effects: metallic taste, nausea, vomiting, yeast infection of the mouth
    Special Note: If taken with alcohol, a disulfiram-like effect occurs
    Metronidazole(Flagyl)
  22. Class:Antiprotozoal & Antihelminths
    MOA: Unknown
    Therapeutic USE: treatment of Malaria, but reserved for the treatment of resistant malarial strains of Plasmodium
    Side effect: cinchonism syndrome (nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, and vertigo)
    Quinine
  23. Class:Antiprotozoal & Antihelminths
    MOA: probably acts by binding to and interfering with the synthesis of the parasite's microtuble and also by decreasing glucose uptake. Affected parasite's are expelled with the feces
    Therapeutic Use: DOC for whipworm(Trichuris), pinworm(Enterbius)hookworm(Necator americanus, roundworm(Ascariasis)
    Side effects: Mild N/V/D
    Mebendazole(Vermox)
  24. Class: Antiviral Drugs For Influenza Agent
    MOA: unknown, probably interferes with the viral fusion between viral membrane and cell membrane and/or inhibits uncoating process of the viral RNA
    Therapeutic Use: treatment of the flu and parkinsons
    Side effects incude CNS disturbances(dizzines, ataxia, seizures)
    Amantadine (Symmetrel)
  25. Class:Antiprotozoal & Antihelminths
    MOA: inhibit a viral glycoportein essential for replication and release processes
    Therapeutic Use: active against influenza A & B
    Side effects
    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
  26. Class: Antiherpes Simplex Agent
    MOA nucleoside analog tha tincorporates into the viral DNA and impair viral protein synthesis, resulting in the newly fromed viruses unable to function properly
    Therapeutic Use: treatment of Herpesviruses(HSV-1, HSV-2, varicella-zoster)
    Acyclovir (Zovirax)
  27. Class: Antiretroviral Drugs/nuleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
    MOA: inhibit the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase
    Therapeutic Use: HIV
    Side effects: toxic to bone marrow, headaches
    Zidovudine( AZT; Retrovir)
  28. Class: Antiretroviral Drugs/non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
    MOA: directly inhibit HIV revers transcriptase
    Therapeutic USE: HIV
    Side effects: rash, fever, Stevens-Jonson syndrome
    Nevirapine (Viramune)
  29. Class: Antiretroviral drugs/ Protease Inhibitors
    MOA: inhibit the viral protease enzyme that cleaves the viral proteins needed to bud from the cell
    Therapeutic Use: HIV
    Side effects: diarrhea, nausea, elevation in liver enzymes, lipodystrophy(including elevated tryglyceride and cholesterol levels, hyperglycemia
    Nelfinavir(Viracept)
  30. Class: Anti-hepatitis Drugs
    MOA: Endogenous protein that works via complex series of events following attachement to cell infected with HBV or HCV
    Interferon Alfa(Inton-A)
  31. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: decreases lymphocyte formation and movement
    therapeutic use: leukemia/lymphoma/Testicular cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Prednisone (Deltasone)
  32. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: microtubule inhibitor-blocks mitosis in metaphase(cell cycle specific)
    therapeutic use: leukemia/lymphoma
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Vincristine(Oncovin)
  33. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: antimetabolite-inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, which ultimately deprives the cell of folate coenzyme and leads to decrease purines
    Therapeutic use: leukemia
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Methotrexate
  34. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: antimetabolite-inhibits several enzymes in the purine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway
    therapeutic use: leukemia
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogeni
    6-Mercaptopurine (Purinethol)
  35. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: alkylating agent-reacts directly with DNA(cross-links), altering its structure or function, and ultimately leading to cell death
    therapeutic use: Lymphomas
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Cyclophophamide(Cytoxan)
  36. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: antibiotic-severs DNA, disrupting DNA funciton
    therapeutic use: Lymphomas
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Special note: Highly cardiotoxic
    Doxorubicin(Hydroxydaunorubicin)
  37. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: renders microtubules nonfunctional
    therapeutic use: Breast cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Paclitaxel(Taxol)
  38. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: estrogen inhibitor, causing tumor regression in hormone dependent tumors
    therapeutic use: Breast cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
  39. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: Plant alkaloid-blocks topisomerase I (related to DNA gyrase) resulting in DNA damage
    therapeutic use: GI cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Irinotecam (Camptosar)
  40. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: antimetabolite-deprives the cell of essential precursers for DNA synthesis
    therapeutic use: GI cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    5-Fluorouracil(5FU)
  41. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: rescue therapy(rescues bone marrow)
    therapeutic use: GI cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Leucovorin
  42. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: similar to alkylating agents
    therapeutic use: Lung cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Cisplatin (Platinol)
  43. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: plant alkaloid-blocks topoisomerase I, disrupting DNA function
    therapeutic use: Testicular cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Etoposide (VP-16)
  44. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: antibiotic-severs DNA, disrupting DNA function, blocking cell divison
    Therapeutic Use: Testicular cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Bleomycin
  45. Class: Chemotherapy/Cancer Drugs
    MOA: Highly lipid soluble akylating agents, therefore they will cross the blood brain barrier
    Therapeutic Use: Testicular cancer
    Side effects: Severe vomiting, stomatitis, alopecia, myelosuppression, teratogenic
    Carmustin(BCNU) & Lomustine (CCNU)

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