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The blood creatinine level shows how well your kidneys are working. A high creatinine level may mean your kidneys are not working properly. The amount of creatinine in the blood depends partly on the amount of muscle tissue you have
- 10-30 ug/dL (6-20 mg/dL)
- BUN measures the ammount of urea in your blood and tells you how well the kidneys are working
- Increased: low blood flow to kidneys from dehydration, heart failure. high protein diet
- Decreased: malnutrition, severe liver damage, over hydration
The ammount of CO2 dissolved in arterial blood.
greater than 80 mmHg
The partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in arterial blooed
- Altered levels of Bicarb mean the body is having trouble maintaining acid base balance.
- Increased could be from: severe vomiting, metabolic alkalosis, Cushing Syndrome.
- Decreased could be from: chronic diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, Aspirin OD.
RBC in males
RBC in females
Hemoglobin in males
Hematocrit in males
percentage of blood volume occupied by RBC.
Hemoglobin in women
hematocrit in women
Glycosolated Hemoglobin (Hgb A1C)
5% (up to 7% in a diabetic)
Erythrocyte Sedementation Rate (ESR)
- less than 20 mm/hr
- It is a test that indirectly measures how much inflammation is in the body.
- Increased: systemic infection, Tb, Infection of heart valves
- Decreased: CHF, polycythemia, sickle cell
- 4-7 minBleeding time is a blood test that looks at how fast small blood vessels in the skin close to stop you from bleeding.
Prothrombin time (PT)
- 11-14 seconds
- A prothrombin time test can be used to check for bleeding problems. PT is also used to check whether medicine to prevent blood clots is working.
- **PT is used to check coumadin/warfarin
Partial Thromboplastin time
- less than 40 seconds
- too long of a PTT: DIC, Hemophilia A or B, Vitamin K deficiency, liver disease
- ** check PTT for heparin
- 3.8-5.0 g/dL
- Albumin is a protein made by the liver. A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood.
- decreased levels: kidney disease, liver disease, low protien diet
- 11-35 umol/L
- high levels: liver disease, kidney failure, heart failure, severe bleeding from stomach and intestines
Urine Specific Gravity
- Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that measures the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine.
- decreased: kidney infection, renal failure, excessive fluid intake
- increased: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, dehydration, heart failure
- high pH (alkaline): gastric suction, UTI, kidney failure
- low pH (acid): diabetic ketoacidosis, starvation, diarrhea
therapeutic digoxin level
therapeutic lithium level