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- 2 CELLS DIVIDE
- THEY ARE NOT THE SAME; MATERIAL VARIED
- 1ST PHASE- REPLICATION OF CHROMOSOMESCROSSING OVER- EXCHANGE OF GENETIC MATERIAL
- 2ND PHASE NO CHROMOSOMES DUPLICATE
- 1ST PHASE: CHROMO MOVES TO THE CENTER
- 2ND PHASE: CHROMO LINE UP
- 1ST PHASE:CHROMOSOMES MOVES TO THE POLES
- 2ND PHASE: CHROMOSOMES DIVIDE
WHAT IS MITOSIS???
- PROPHASE- 46 CHROMOSOMES DUPLICATE
- METAPHASE- CHROMOSOMES LINE UP IN CENTER OF CELL
- ANAPHASE- SPINDLE FIBERS PULL CHROMOSOMES TO POLAR REGIONOF CELL
- TELOPHASE- CELLS DIVIDES ITO 2 IDENTICAL DIPLOID CELLS
WHAT IS RNA???
- RIBONUCLEIC ACID:
- MORE PRIMITIVE THAN DNA
- FOUND OUTSIDE CELL NUCLEUS
- SINGLE STRAND OF CHEMICAL BASES: CYTOSINE, GUANINE, ADENINE, AND URACIL (INSTEAD OF THYMINE)
- ITS ARRANGED IN A DOUBLE HELIX FORM
- THE ONLY MOLECULE THAT CAN MAKE AN EXACT COPY OF ITSELF
- SUPPORTS OF THE LADDER ARE SUGAR AND PHOSPHATE
- RUNGS OF THE LADDER ARE COMPRISED OF THE 4 CHEMICAL BASES: A & T c & g
WHAT ARE NUCLEIC ACIDS???? DNA???
- DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID:
- 1ST DISCOVER IN 1869 BY MIESCHER
- PHOTO BY R. FRANKLIN
- 1944 WATSON, CRICK, & WILKES PUBLISHED 10 YR STUDY
- 1962 NOBEL PRIZE
iN EUKARYOTIC CELLS WHAT ARE GAMETES???
- THEY ARE SEX CELLS
- REPRODUCED VIA MEIOSISSOLE
- PURPOSE TO UNITE WITH ANOTHER GAMETE AND PRODUCE OFFSPRING:
- OVA- F AND SPERM- M
IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS WHAT ARE SOMATIC CELLS????
- THEY ARE COMPONENTS OF BODY TISSUE
- CONSTANTLY RENEWED VIA MITOSIS
- CONTAINS ORGANELLES: MITOCHONDRIA AND RIBOSOMES
Describe a Eukaryotic cells- 1.5 BYA
- multi-celled organisms
- nucleic acids
Describe a Prokaryotic Cell- 3.7 BYA
- no nuclear membrane
- Escherichia coli (e. coli)
- simple internal structure
- largest group of organisms
what are Fixity of Species???
- Fixity of species is in a really basic term the counterpart of evolution.
- This theory says that God had created each species independently at the
- beginning of time, and that each species then remained exactly the same up to the
- present. No evolution, no Extinction, no Natural selection.
what were his interest??
- comparative anatomy
- domestic plants & animals
who is darwin???
- he study botany, geology, and zoology
- published essay in 1842
- co-publishedwith Wallace in 1858
- on the origin of species in 1859
who is wallece???
- he spent 4 yrs. in amazon
- 8 yrs. in Malaysian archipelagos
who is lyell??
- mentor to Charles Darwin
who is malthus???
- wrote an essay on the principles of population
- human pop. can double in size every 25 yrs. but food supply cant increase that fast
who is lamark???
- 1st attempt to explain forces behind evolution
- organisms change when environmental forces change
- inheritance acquired characteristics
who is cuvier???
- introduced the concept of extinction through fossils.
- Catastrophism: cataclysmic events occur: earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions
what are the subfields of anthro.?
Linguistics, Archaeology, Biological, Applied
WHAT ARE THE ABo BLOOD GROUPS?????
- THEY ARE 4 TYPES IN THIS SYSTEM:
- A B AB o
WHAT IS CODOMINANCE??
- A & B ARE CO-DOMINANT
- WHEN BOTH ARE INHERITED BOTH ARE EXPRESSED
- o IS RECESSIVE
WHAT ARE THE GENOTYPES????
WHAT IS SICKLE CELL ANEMIA??
- ALLELE FOUND PREDOMINANTLY IN TROPICAL REGIONS
- CAUSES SICKLE SHAPE BLOOD CELLS
- PAIN IIN JOINTS & MUSCLES DUE TO LACK OF OXYGEN
- Co-DOMINANT TRAIT
WHAT IS A CODON?? AND HOW IT RELATES TO AMINO ACIDS????
- 3 CHEMICAL BASES FOR AMINO ACIDS
- CODONS CODE FOR AMINO ACIDS
- AMINO ACIDS STRUNG TOGETHER TO FORM A PROTEIN
WHAT IS THE GENE POOL????
THE TOTAL SUM OF THE GENETIC CODE IN A POPULATION OF BREEDING INDIVIDUALS.
WHAT IS GENE FLOW???
- THE EXCHANGE OF GENES BETWEEN 2 OR MORE POPULATIONS
- MOVEMENT INTO OR OUT OF A POPUALTION
WHAT IS GENETIC DRIFT???
ALLELE FREQUENCY CHANGES CAUSED BY CHANCE EFFECTS, NOT AFFECTED BY SELECTION; MOST COMMON IN SMALL POPULATIONS
WHAT IS FOUNDER EFFECT?????
type of genetic drift caused by sampling a small amount of genetic variation from the original population in a group of individuals colonizing a new area
- Retinitis Pigmentosa
WHAT IS DIRECTIONAL SELECTION???
- PEPPERED MOTHS:
- -INITIALLY MORE LIGHT MOTHS THAN DARK MOTHS
- -ENVIRONMENT CHANGED
- -MORE DARK MOTHS THAN LIGHT
- -ENVIROMENT CHANGED
- -MORE LIGHT MOTHS THAN DARK
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