ANTHROPOLOGY 100

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doloresinzunza09
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9276
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ANTHROPOLOGY 100
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2010-03-05 21:38:34
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MIDTERM
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    • TELOPHASE"
    • 2 CELLS DIVIDE
    • THEY ARE NOT THE SAME; MATERIAL VARIED´╗┐
    • PROPAHSE:
    • 1ST PHASE- REPLICATION OF CHROMOSOMESCROSSING OVER- EXCHANGE OF GENETIC MATERIAL
    • 2ND PHASE NO CHROMOSOMES DUPLICATE
    • METAPHASE:
    • 1ST PHASE: CHROMO MOVES TO THE CENTER
    • 2ND PHASE: CHROMO LINE UP
    • ANAPHASE:
    • 1ST PHASE:CHROMOSOMES MOVES TO THE POLES
    • 2ND PHASE: CHROMOSOMES DIVIDE
  1. WHAT IS MITOSIS???´╗┐
    • PROPHASE- 46 CHROMOSOMES DUPLICATE
    • METAPHASE- CHROMOSOMES LINE UP IN CENTER OF CELL
    • ANAPHASE- SPINDLE FIBERS PULL CHROMOSOMES TO POLAR REGIONOF CELL
    • TELOPHASE- CELLS DIVIDES ITO 2 IDENTICAL DIPLOID CELLS
  2. WHAT IS RNA???
    • RIBONUCLEIC ACID:
    • MORE PRIMITIVE THAN DNA
    • FOUND OUTSIDE CELL NUCLEUS
    • SINGLE STRAND OF CHEMICAL BASES: CYTOSINE, GUANINE, ADENINE, AND URACIL (INSTEAD OF THYMINE)
  3. DESCRIBE DNA???
    • ITS ARRANGED IN A DOUBLE HELIX FORM
    • THE ONLY MOLECULE THAT CAN MAKE AN EXACT COPY OF ITSELF
    • SUPPORTS OF THE LADDER ARE SUGAR AND PHOSPHATE
    • RUNGS OF THE LADDER ARE COMPRISED OF THE 4 CHEMICAL BASES: A & T c & g
  4. WHAT ARE NUCLEIC ACIDS???? DNA???
    • DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID:
    • 1ST DISCOVER IN 1869 BY MIESCHER
    • PHOTO BY R. FRANKLIN
    • 1944 WATSON, CRICK, & WILKES PUBLISHED 10 YR STUDY
    • 1962 NOBEL PRIZE
  5. iN EUKARYOTIC CELLS WHAT ARE GAMETES???
    • THEY ARE SEX CELLS
    • REPRODUCED VIA MEIOSISSOLE
    • PURPOSE TO UNITE WITH ANOTHER GAMETE AND PRODUCE OFFSPRING:
    • OVA- F AND SPERM- M
  6. IN EUKARYOTIC CELLS WHAT ARE SOMATIC CELLS????
    • THEY ARE COMPONENTS OF BODY TISSUE
    • CONSTANTLY RENEWED VIA MITOSIS
    • CONTAINS ORGANELLES: MITOCHONDRIA AND RIBOSOMES
  7. Describe a Eukaryotic cells- 1.5 BYA
    • multi-celled organisms
    • protein
    • lipids
    • carbohydrates
    • nucleic acids
  8. Describe a Prokaryotic Cell- 3.7 BYA
    • no nuclear membrane
    • Escherichia coli (e. coli)
    • simple internal structure
    • largest group of organisms
    • staphylococcus
  9. what are Fixity of Species???
    • Fixity of species is in a really basic term the counterpart of evolution.
    • This theory says that God had created each species independently at the
    • beginning of time, and that each species then remained exactly the same up to the
    • present. No evolution, no Extinction, no Natural selection.
  10. what were his interest??
    • comparative anatomy
    • embryology
    • domestic plants & animals
  11. who is darwin???
    • he study botany, geology, and zoology
    • published essay in 1842
    • co-publishedwith Wallace in 1858
    • on the origin of species in 1859
  12. who is wallece???
    • he spent 4 yrs. in amazon
    • 8 yrs. in Malaysian archipelagos
  13. who is lyell??
    • uniformitarianism
    • mentor to Charles Darwin
  14. who is malthus???
    • wrote an essay on the principles of population
    • human pop. can double in size every 25 yrs. but food supply cant increase that fast
  15. who is lamark???
    • 1st attempt to explain forces behind evolution
    • organisms change when environmental forces change
    • inheritance acquired characteristics
  16. who is cuvier???
    • introduced the concept of extinction through fossils.
    • Catastrophism: cataclysmic events occur: earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions
  17. what are the subfields of anthro.?
    Linguistics, Archaeology, Biological, Applied
  18. WHAT ARE THE ABo BLOOD GROUPS?????
    • THEY ARE 4 TYPES IN THIS SYSTEM:
    • A B AB o
  19. WHAT IS CODOMINANCE??
    • A & B ARE CO-DOMINANT
    • WHEN BOTH ARE INHERITED BOTH ARE EXPRESSED
    • o IS RECESSIVE
  20. WHAT ARE THE GENOTYPES????
    • AA
    • Ao
    • BB
    • Bo
    • AB
    • oo
  21. WHAT IS SICKLE CELL ANEMIA??
    • ALLELE FOUND PREDOMINANTLY IN TROPICAL REGIONS
    • CAUSES SICKLE SHAPE BLOOD CELLS
    • PAIN IIN JOINTS & MUSCLES DUE TO LACK OF OXYGEN
    • Co-DOMINANT TRAIT
  22. WHAT IS A CODON?? AND HOW IT RELATES TO AMINO ACIDS????
    • 3 CHEMICAL BASES FOR AMINO ACIDS
    • CODONS CODE FOR AMINO ACIDS
    • AMINO ACIDS STRUNG TOGETHER TO FORM A PROTEIN
  23. WHAT IS THE GENE POOL????
    THE TOTAL SUM OF THE GENETIC CODE IN A POPULATION OF BREEDING INDIVIDUALS.
  24. WHAT IS GENE FLOW???
    • THE EXCHANGE OF GENES BETWEEN 2 OR MORE POPULATIONS
    • MIGRATION
    • MOVEMENT INTO OR OUT OF A POPUALTION
  25. WHAT IS GENETIC DRIFT???
    ALLELE FREQUENCY CHANGES CAUSED BY CHANCE EFFECTS, NOT AFFECTED BY SELECTION; MOST COMMON IN SMALL POPULATIONS
  26. WHAT IS FOUNDER EFFECT?????
  27. type of genetic drift caused by sampling a small amount of genetic variation from the original population in a group of individuals colonizing a new area
    • Syndactyly
    • Retinitis Pigmentosa
    • achromatopsia
  28. WHAT IS DIRECTIONAL SELECTION???
    • PEPPERED MOTHS:
    • -INITIALLY MORE LIGHT MOTHS THAN DARK MOTHS
    • -ENVIRONMENT CHANGED
    • -MORE DARK MOTHS THAN LIGHT
    • -ENVIROMENT CHANGED
    • -MORE LIGHT MOTHS THAN DARK

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