Energy and Metabolism
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Energy and Metabolism
BIOL Energy Metabolism
Study cards for Chapter 8 "Energy and Metabolism" BIOL 189 CSN
The sum total of all the chemical reactions performed by an organism.
A series of reactions involving reactants, products, and enzymes are:
Do anabolic pathways build up molecules or break them down?
build them up
A metabolic process that breaks down larger molecules or components is a:
Protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis are examples of:
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are examples of:
Define potential energy
energy based on position
Define Kinetic Energy
energy of motion or movement
Define Solar Energy
energy from the sun
Define Thermal Energy
energy from heat
Define Chemical Energy
energy from matter
Give an example of mechanical energy
How/where do autotrophs obtain their food?
They produce it themselves
How/where do heterotrophs obtain their food?
by consuming other organisms
Are autotrophs consumers or producers?
Are heterotrophs consumers or producers?
What is the primary food for herbivores?
What is the primary food source for carnivores?
Do omnivores eat plants or meat?
they eat both
the study of energy transformation
What is a thermodynamic system?
the matter/organism being studied
A thermodynamic system that is unable to exchange energy with the environment is an:
A thermodynamic system taht is able to exchange or move energy with the environment is an:
In regards to thermodynamics, what are the "surroundings?"
everything else around the system being studied
What is the 1
Law of Thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted.
What is the 2
Law of Thermodynamics?
Every time energy is converted, usable energy is lost in the form of heat.
Energy that is usable and able to power reactions is known as:
The amount of free energy is represented by the symbol:
in free energy is represented by the symbol:
True of False: A spontaneous reaction does not require an energy input.
Will the delta G be postive or negative in a spontaneous reaction?
If delta G is a negative number, what type of reaction do you have?
If a reaction is not spontaneous and requires an energy input the delta G value will be:
Do endergonic reactions consume or give off energy?
True of False: Endergonic reactions require no energy input.
False - without an energy input, endergonic reactions would not occur
Endergonic reactions have a _________ delta G value.
Do exergonic reactions consume or give off energy?
give off energy
True or False: Exergonic reactions can be spontaneous.
Exergonic reactions a _________ delta G value.
Will an exergonic reactions have a delta G value greater than zero, or less than zero?
less than zero
True or False: Reactions are either endergonic or exergonic.
False - many reactions have endergonic and exergonic phases
Name the three types of cellular work.
transport, mechanical, and chemical
Define transport work.
moving things across the membrane
the concentration gradient
Define mechanical work.
physical movement of a cell or organism
Define chemical work.
cellular metabolic processes
Sodium pumps in cell membranes that function with energy from ATP are examples of what type of cellular work?
Skeletal muscle contraction is an example of what kind of cellular work?
Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are examples of what type of cellular work?
How is ATP synthesized?
By adding a phosphate group (P
) to ADP
Breaking ATP down into ADP + P
is what type of reaction?
What does the symbol E
The energy of activation
Define Energy of Activation.
The amount of energy required to start a specific reaction.
Do enzymes lower or raise the energy of activation?
True or False: Enzymes are consumed when functioning in reactions.
False - enzymes are not changed or consumed during reactions
True or False: Enzymes may be used many times to catalyze reactions before they begin to degrade or denature.
The act of preventing an enzyme from binding with a specific site is known as:
When another protein or enzyme binds to a specific site preventing the correct enzyme from binding, you have what type of inhibition?
When an inhibitor binds somewhere other than the binding site, yet still prevents correct enzyme binding, you have this type of inhibition.
True or False: binding in another site can change protein configuration, preventing proper enzyme binding.
True or False: "Whoever gets there first" is a way to describe non-competitive inhibition.
False - "Whoever gets there first" describes competitive inhibition