Energy and Metabolism

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Geoff
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92764
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Energy and Metabolism
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2011-07-02 14:25:40
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BIOL Energy Metabolism
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Study cards for Chapter 8 "Energy and Metabolism" BIOL 189 CSN
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  1. Define metabolism
    The sum total of all the chemical reactions performed by an organism.
  2. A series of reactions involving reactants, products, and enzymes are:
    metabolic pathways
  3. Do anabolic pathways build up molecules or break them down?
    build them up
  4. A metabolic process that breaks down larger molecules or components is a:
    catabolic pathway
  5. Protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis are examples of:
    anabolic pathways
  6. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are examples of:
    catabolic pathways
  7. Define potential energy
    energy based on position
  8. Define Kinetic Energy
    energy of motion or movement
  9. Define Solar Energy
    energy from the sun
  10. Define Thermal Energy
    energy from heat
  11. Define Chemical Energy
    energy from matter
  12. Give an example of mechanical energy
    animals walking
  13. How/where do autotrophs obtain their food?
    They produce it themselves
  14. How/where do heterotrophs obtain their food?
    by consuming other organisms
  15. Are autotrophs consumers or producers?
    producers
  16. Are heterotrophs consumers or producers?
    consumers
  17. What is the primary food for herbivores?
    plants
  18. What is the primary food source for carnivores?
    meat
  19. Do omnivores eat plants or meat?
    they eat both
  20. Define Thermodynamics
    the study of energy transformation
  21. What is a thermodynamic system?
    the matter/organism being studied
  22. A thermodynamic system that is unable to exchange energy with the environment is an:
    isolated system
  23. A thermodynamic system taht is able to exchange or move energy with the environment is an:
    open system
  24. In regards to thermodynamics, what are the "surroundings?"
    everything else around the system being studied
  25. What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics?
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted.
  26. What is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?
    Every time energy is converted, usable energy is lost in the form of heat.
  27. Energy that is usable and able to power reactions is known as:
    free energy
  28. The amount of free energy is represented by the symbol:
    G
  29. The change in free energy is represented by the symbol:
    delta G
  30. True of False: A spontaneous reaction does not require an energy input.
    True
  31. Will the delta G be postive or negative in a spontaneous reaction?
    negative
  32. If delta G is a negative number, what type of reaction do you have?
    spontaneous
  33. If a reaction is not spontaneous and requires an energy input the delta G value will be:
    positive
  34. Do endergonic reactions consume or give off energy?
    consume energy
  35. True of False: Endergonic reactions require no energy input.
    False - without an energy input, endergonic reactions would not occur
  36. Endergonic reactions have a _________ delta G value.
    positive
  37. Do exergonic reactions consume or give off energy?
    give off energy
  38. True or False: Exergonic reactions can be spontaneous.
    True
  39. Exergonic reactions a _________ delta G value.
    negative
  40. Will an exergonic reactions have a delta G value greater than zero, or less than zero?
    less than zero
  41. True or False: Reactions are either endergonic or exergonic.
    False - many reactions have endergonic and exergonic phases
  42. Name the three types of cellular work.
    transport, mechanical, and chemical
  43. Define transport work.
    moving things across the membrane against the concentration gradient
  44. Define mechanical work.
    physical movement of a cell or organism
  45. Define chemical work.
    cellular metabolic processes
  46. Sodium pumps in cell membranes that function with energy from ATP are examples of what type of cellular work?
    transport
  47. Skeletal muscle contraction is an example of what kind of cellular work?
    mechanical
  48. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are examples of what type of cellular work?
    chemical
  49. How is ATP synthesized?
    By adding a phosphate group (Pi) to ADP
  50. Breaking ATP down into ADP + Pi is what type of reaction?
    hydrolysis
  51. What does the symbol EA represent?
    The energy of activation
  52. Define Energy of Activation.
    The amount of energy required to start a specific reaction.
  53. Do enzymes lower or raise the energy of activation?
    lower EA
  54. True or False: Enzymes are consumed when functioning in reactions.
    False - enzymes are not changed or consumed during reactions
  55. True or False: Enzymes may be used many times to catalyze reactions before they begin to degrade or denature.
    True
  56. The act of preventing an enzyme from binding with a specific site is known as:
    enzyme inhibition
  57. When another protein or enzyme binds to a specific site preventing the correct enzyme from binding, you have what type of inhibition?
    competitive
  58. When an inhibitor binds somewhere other than the binding site, yet still prevents correct enzyme binding, you have this type of inhibition.
    non-competitive
  59. True or False: binding in another site can change protein configuration, preventing proper enzyme binding.
    True
  60. True or False: "Whoever gets there first" is a way to describe non-competitive inhibition.
    False - "Whoever gets there first" describes competitive inhibition

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