Structural components of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acid and proteins. Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes during cell division.
Threadlike structure within nucleus composed of DNA, each egg and each sperm has 23 unpaired chromosomes.
Jellylike substance within nucleus composed of proteins, salts, water, disolved gasses, and nutrients. All cellular structures are embedded in cytoplasm.
Muscular wall dividing the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
Sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell/organism.
Movement away from the midsgittal plane of the body.
Pertaining to the midline of the body.
Pertaining to a side.
Toward the head or upper portion of the structure.
Away from the head or toward the tail or lower part of a structure.
Nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body.
Further from the center or from the point of attachment.
Front of the body.
Back of the body.
Pertaining to the outer wal of the body cavity.
Pertaining to the internal organs, especially the abdominal organs.
Laying on the abdomen, face down.
Laying on the back, face up.
Turning inward or inside out.
Pertaining to the palm of the hand.
Pertaining to the sole of the foot.
Toward the surface of the body (external).
Awary from the surface of the body (internal).
Back of body
Neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
Ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hipbone)
Loins (lower back)
Cirrh/o, Jaund/o, xanth/o
Form, shape, structure
Forming, producing, origin
Intrument for recording
Process of recording
Specialist in the study of
Instrument for measuring
From, away from
Objective indicators that are observable.
Subjective and only experienced by the patient.
Results of radiological, laboratory, and other medical procedures performed on the patient.
Study of the cause or origin of a disease. Some possible causes of disease include: metabolic (diabetes), infectious (measles, mumps), congenital (cleft lip), hereditary (hemophilia), environmental (burns or trauma), neoplastic (cancer).
Abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally seperated.
Substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods.
Substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray.
Bursting open of a wound, expecially a surgical abdominal wound.
Feverish, pertaining to a fever
Diseased, pertaining to a disease.
Use of radioactive substances.
Use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound and imaging techniques.
Subastances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers.
Radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar, or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of body that will be scanned.
Term used to describe a computerized image by modality or by structure.
Pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms in the bloodstream.
Producing or associated with generation of pus.
Visual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope.
Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdomen through very small incisions in the abdominal wall.
Examination of the lungs, pleura, and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between ribs.
Complete blood count (CBC)
Commom blood test that enumerates RBCs, WBCs, and platelets; measures hemoglobin; estimates red cell volume; and sorts WBCs into 5 subtypes.
Commom urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine.
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examinations, usually to establish a diagnosis.
Removal of a part, pathway, or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electrocautery, freezing, or radio frequency
Joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
Destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals.
Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon shaped instrument called a curette.
Incision and drainage (I & D)
Incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity.
Surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the chance of recurrence.
Partial excision of a bone, organ, or other structure.
Abb. - ant
Abb. - AP
Abb. - Bx, bx
Abb. - Dx
Abb. - LAT, lat
Abb. - LLQ
Abb. - LUQ
Left lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Abb. - post
Abb. - RLQ
Abb. - RUQ
Right lower quadrant
Right upper quadrant
Abb. - Sx
Abb. - Tx
Abb. - UA
Abb. - U & L, U/L
Upper and lower
Abb. - US
Genetic term for an agent (usually a hormone) that stimulates development of male characteristics.
Very small duct
Adip/o, lip/o, steat/o
Cutane/o, dermat/o, derm/o
Horny tissue, hard, cornea
Excessive, above normal
Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease; commonly called baldness.
Localized collection of pus at the site of an infection.
Diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries.
Damaged tissue following a severe burn.
Bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture.
Thickened area of epidermis or any horny gorwth on the skin (such as a callus or wart).
Small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in a middle-aged or older person.
Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin.
Infestation with lice
Minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
Skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in bedridden patients; also know as decubitus ulcer (bed sore).
Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis.
Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particularly beneath the skin or mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae.
Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patched called wheals or hives.
Epidermal growth caused by a virus; also known as warts.
Localed loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches.
Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents.
Inhibit allergic reactions of inflammation, redness, and itching caused by the release of histamine. (Block histamines from binding with histamine receptor sites in tissues. Histamines cause sneezing, running nose, itchiness, and rashes.)
Topically applied agents that inhibit growth of bacteria, thus preventing infections in cuts, scratches, and surgical incisions.
Decrease inflammation and itching by suppressing the immune system's inflammatory response to tissue damage.
Abb - IMP
Impression (synonymous with diagnosis)
Abb - ung
Orange-colored or yellowish pigment in bile. Bilirubin is formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blook cells after termination of their normal lifespan.
Mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed.
Denotes a gland that secretes its products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue or into a vessel.
Cricular band of muscle fibers that constrict a passage or closes a natural opening of the body.
Pylorus (sphincter of the stomach)
Duodenum (first part of the small intestine)
Intestine (usually small intestine)
Jejunum (second part of the small intestine)
Ileum (third part of the small intestine)
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine.
Physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer.
Presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct.
Scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease.
Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain.
Chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possible affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional eneteritis.
Act of swallowing
Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloddy diarrhea.
Epigastric disconfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
Inability or difficulty in swallowing; also called aphagia
Producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic cound; also called belching
Vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
Passage of dark colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices.
Sever constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
Formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips,, or cheek caused primarily by irritation.
Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it.
Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood.
Abb. - a.c.
Twice a day
Any hairlike structure
Moving or spreading out of a substance at random, rather than by chemical reaction or application of external forces.
Wall dividing two cavities
Thin layer of tissue that covers internal body cavities, the cells of which secrete a fluid that keeps the membrane moist
Bad, painful, difficult
Condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen.
Collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung.
Ease with which lunch tissue can be stretched
head cold; upper respiratory infection (URI)
Nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage
Deficiency of oxygen in the blood
Deficiency of oxygen in tissues
Abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation
High pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway.
Arterial blood gas (ABG)
Test that measures partial pressure of oxygen, carbon diaoxide, pH, and bicarbonate level of an arterial blood sample. (ABG analysis evaluates pulmonary gas exchange and helps guide treatment of acid-base imbalances.)
Relieve or suppress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in the medulla of the brain. Antitussives alleviate nonproductive dry coughs and should not be used with productive coughs.
Abb. - CXR
Abb. - Hb, Hgb
Abb. - Hx
Abb. - RD
Abb - SOB
Shortness of breath
Abb. - TPR
Temperature, pulse, and respiration
Vessel (usually blood or lymph)
Hardening; sclera (white of the eyes)
Localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery.
Condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
Inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possible including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia.
Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, vavular action, or both; also called murmur.
Narrowing of a vessel, espcially the aorta
Ejection fraction (EF)
Calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction. The left ventricular EF averages 50-70% in healthy hearts but can be markedly reduced if part of the heart muscle dies, as evident after and MI or in cardiomyopathy or valvular heart disease.
Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions. FIbrillation is commonly corrected with a defibrillator.
Arrest of bleeding or circulation
Excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood.
Area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blook supply.
Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obsruction.
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
Common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur hear on auscultation.
Circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ.
Procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest.
Procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation of the vessel using a balloon catheter.
Protective proteing produced by B lymphocytes in response to presence of a foreign subantance called an antigen.
Substance recognized as harmful to the host and stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual.
Substances derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin, produced by the liver, and excreted in the form of bile.
Chemical substances produced by certain cells that initiate, inhibit, increase, or decrease activity in other cells. Cytokines are important chemical communicators in the immune response, regulating many activities associate with immunity and inflammation.
All body fluids outside cells, including interstition fluid, plasma, lymph, and cerebrospinal fluid.
Natura killer cells (NK cells)
Specialized lymphocytes that kill abnormal cells by releaseing chemicals that destroy the cell membrance causing its intercellular fluid to leak out. (NK cells destroy virally infected cells and tumor cells).
Form, shape, structure
Bone marrow; spinal cord
Condition of marked variation in the size of erythrocytes when observed on a blood smear.
Localized accumulation of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue due to a break in or severing of a blood vessel.
Destruction of RBCs with a release of hemoglobin that diffuses into the surrounding fluid.
Serious, life threatening bloodstream infection that may arise from other infections throughout the body. Septicemia is characterized by chills, fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, confusion, hypotension, and ecchymoses.
Differential count (diff)
Test that enumerates the distrubution of WBCs in a stained blood smear by counting the different kinds of WBCs and reporting each as a percentage of the total examined.
Hemoglobin (Hbg) value
Measurement of the amount of hemoglobin found in a whole blood sample. Hgb values decrease in anemia and increase in dehydration, plyycythemia vera, and thrombocytopenia purpura.
Measurement of the percentage of RBCs in a whole blood sample.