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  1. Mestizo
    • 1. Is having offspring of a European and Native American. It was important regarding social status
    • 2. In Latin America
    • 3. Throughout colonial period
    • 4. It determined what was your social status depending what was your race.
  2. The devastation of the indies (1542)
    • 1. It is a book written by Bartolome De las Casas. It was about the hardships that the indigenous people had endured by the Europeans.
    • 2. In latin america
    • 3. 1542
    • 4. It brought awareness on how indigenous people were being treated. It also led to a debate in which the outcome was to abolish indigenous slavery.
  3. Mita (1573-1812)
    • 1. Labor tax. A way of enslavement.
    • 2. Latin America
    • 3. 1573-1812
    • 4. It was another form of slavery.
  4. Reconquista (ended 1492)
    • 1. a period of time in which catholics re-captured spanish parts that were controlled by Muslims.
    • 2. In Spain and Portugal. Iberian territory.
    • 3. It ended in 1492.
    • 4. This helped spread catholicism. It also enabled Christopher Columbus to get a loan to go discover the Americas.
  5. Monocultura
    • 1. Is when a region or country raise one single kind of crop.
    • 2. Some parts of latin america
    • 3. Colonial period. Still happens sometimes today.
    • 4. It was important because it was either "boom or bust" for a region. If the weather prevented any production, it will take the economy with it.
  6. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
    • 1. Treaty which the Pope came up with to dissect Latin America for Spain and Portugal.
    • 2. Spain and Portugal.
    • 3.1494
    • 4. It separated Latin America for Spain and Portugal. Gave Portugal just Brazil to keep and the rest for Spain. Spain gained more wealth because it got the bigger part.
  7. Jeronimo de Aguilar (1520s)
    • 1. He helped Hernan Cortes with interpretation of the mayan language.
    • 2. In a small mayan village. Mexico
    • 3. 1520's
    • 4. It helped Cortes communicate with the mayans.
  8. Quetzalcoatl
    • 1. He was an Aztec god. He vowed to return back and destroy the whole world. He also led the Aztecs on where to settle.
    • 2. In Mexico
    • 3. It was part of the Aztec and Mayan culture.
    • 4. At one point they thought that Cortes was Quetzalcoatl. Thus gave him all he wanted at one point.
  9. Cuahtemoc (1521)
    • 1. Was the last leader of the Aztec empire before it collapsed with his abduction.
    • 2. In Mexico
    • 3.1521
    • 4. It was important because when he got killed, it signified the end of the aztec civilization. His death date is used to signify the collapse of technotitlan.
  10. Bartolome De Las Casas (1542)
    • 1. A priest that fought for indigenous rights. He wrote the book the devastation of the indies. He also had a debate which led to the abolishment of slavery.
    • 2. Latin America
    • 3.1542
    • 4. He subsequently brought an end to slavery of indigenous people.
  11. Encomienda 1493-1791
    • 1. Form of slavery that forced indigenous people to work for them.
    • 2. In most of latin america
    • 3.1493-1791
    • 4. It killed off many indigenous people by this form of slavery. It also brought awareness to people on the hardships the indians endured.
  12. Viceroy
    • 1. Officials that were in charge of the capitols of Latin America. Highest official living in Latin America
    • 2. In Lima and Mexico City
    • 3. Colonial period
    • 4. They had the power to veto any law the council of indies passed. They came up with "obedezco pero no cumplo".
  13. Repartimiento
    • 1. Indians were forced to buy from Spain only. Were also forced to buy things they did not need.
    • 2. In latin america that spain owned.
    • 3. during the colonial period
    • 4. It kept the indians enslaved in a way. Spain benefited from it because it got rid of the excess goods they produced.
  14. The index
    • 1. List of books that were banned by the spanish inquisition
    • 2. Parts of latin america that spain owned.
    • 3. Colonial period
    • 4. It prevented people from getting different ideas to what the schools taught. It narrowed peoples thinking.
  15. Engenho 1550
    • 1.The whole process in which sugar cane was produced. Includes everyone and everything.
    • 2. Brazil
    • 3.1550
    • 4. This is how they created sugar to make money. It was similar to a hacienda. This also stimulated the growth of african slaves.
  16. Peninsular
    • 1. a person borned in Spain.
    • 2. It was highly important during colonial periods. Spain/Portugal and latin america.
    • 3. Colonial period.
    • 4. The peninsulares were the ones with the highest status of all the races.
  17. Debt Peonage
    • 1.Was debt owned to a plantation owner. Form of slavery
    • 2. In Latin America
    • 3. Colonial period till 1994 when it got abolished.
    • 4. It was important because the debt would be passed on generation after the next. Leaving families in the debt peonage system for a very long time.
  18. Council of Indies
    • 1. A council that was in charge of all Latin America for Spain.
    • 2. Latin America, they were located in Spain.
    • 3. Colonial Period
    • 4. They made up all the laws for the Americas. They were below the King in power.
  19. Latifundio
    • 1. a situation in which a small number of families own most of the land in the region.
    • 2. In latin america.
    • 3. During Colonial period.
    • 4. This was a direct cause of the consequences of having monocultura in one region.
  20. Military fueros (1700s)
    • 1. Military officials couldn't get arrested or be taxed. They made these laws so more people with Hidalgo titles can join the military.
    • 2. In latin america
    • 3. 1700s
    • 4. This was a direct cause of dictatorship because the military had so much power.
  21. Canning Agreement (1823)
    • 1. British policy that backed up Monroe Doctrine. Stated that it would help latin americas keep their liberty.
    • 2. In British for Latin America.
    • 3. 1823
    • 4. It helped back countries from trying to re-capture latin american countries.
  22. El Grito de Dolores (1810)
    • 1. Father Miguel Hidalgo gives this speech. Marks the mexican independence.
    • 2. in Mexico
    • 3 September 16, 1810
    • 4. It marked as the mexican independence. Started a revolution in mexico.
  23. Jose Bonifacio Andrade e Silva (1820s)
    • 1. chief advisor of Pedro.
    • 2. Brazil
    • 3.1820s
    • 4 He convinced Pedro to consider Brazil to get its independence. He paid people to tell the King that Brazil independence was needed.
  24. Myth of indespensability
    • 1. a strategy that a dictator uses to make himself look more than human. Supernatural status.
    • 2. Wherever there was a dictator this happened.
    • 3. When there was a dictator present.
    • 4. It made some people worship the dictator a little too much. Made them almost God-like thus making it difficult to overthrow him.
  25. Ninos Heroes (1847)
    • 1. Cadets that fought till the end and refused to give in to the U.S Marines. At Chapultepec castle.
    • 2. In mexico
    • 3. Summer of 1847
    • 4. This was the last stand that the Mexican army had against U.S. After this the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo was finalized.
  26. Father Hidalgo (1811)
    • 1. He was a mexican priest that was one of the leaders to lead in the mexican revolution.
    • 2. In mexico
    • 3. 1811
    • 4. He was going to lead an revolt but got ratted out by a viceroy. He gave the speech "grito de dolores". He was eventually executed.
  27. Battle of Goliad (March 1836)
    • 1. Battle in which 365 texans were captured then executed. Turning point of the war.
    • 2. In Texas.
    • 3. March 1836
    • 4. After the massacre, The. U.S army decided to help out the texans. It is sometimes called Goliad massacre.
  28. Huitzilopochtli
    • 1. He was the sun god. An aztec god.
    • 2. In mexico. Aztec civilizations.
    • 3. During the aztec empire.
    • 4. The aztecs made sacrifices daily to satisfy the sun god, so it will shine the next day.
  29. Hidalgo Status
    • 1. Is the highest status. Belonged to the nobility. Lived close to the city and were exempted from paying taxes.
    • 2. Anywhere where it was controlled by Spain.
    • 3. Started after the reconquista.
    • 4. Many people tried to do everything to gain this status. It also determined where one would live at.
  30. Syncretism
    • 1. The blending of 2 cultures together.
    • 2. It happened a lot in latin america.
    • 3. Colonial period.
    • 4. It was used in missions. They converted indigenous people religion to catholicism.
  31. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
    • 1. Was the treaty that brought the end to the Mexican-American war.
    • 2. In Mexico
    • 3. 1848
    • 4. It gave the U.S all the western states including texas. The border was created. Rio grande was the border.
  32. Ferdinand Magellan (1420-1521)
    • 1. Portuguese explorer that sailed around the world.
    • 2. Around the world. The explorer was from portugal.
    • 3. 1480-1521
    • 4. It made Portugal and Spain think about finding different ways to get to Asia. It would take too long to trade with them. Mapped out the world a bit better.
  33. Malinche (1502-1527)
    • 1. She was Cortes mistress in the Americas. She understood Nahuatl and spoke mayan language helping Cortes in his journey.
    • 2. Mexico
    • 3. 1502-1527
    • 4. She helped free her own kind while she conquer Mexico alongside Cortes. She was extremely important to Cortes as he conquered mexico. She knew how to communicate with aztecs and mayans.
  34. Noche Triste ( March 1520)
    • 1. A night in which the spanish decided to escape technotitlan. Over 500 spaniards died that night
    • 2. In technotitlan
    • 3. March 1520
    • 4. It was important because the spanish left a guy with small pox behind. He contaminated the whole colony killing 75 percent of the aztecs.
  35. Atahualpa (1497-1533)
    • 1. The Inca emperor in which was dooped to attend a feast to honor him. He got there, they ambushed him.
    • 2. South america. Inca territory.
    • 3. 1497-1533
    • 4. He was ambushed then forced to convert to catholicism. He still got killed.
  36. Tupac Amaru (?-1572)
    • 1. A leader of a small inca population near the end of their civilization. He led them to revolt but got executed by the spanish.
    • 2. Peru
    • 3. ?-1572
    • 4. When he died he took any chances there was to revive the Inca civilization.
  37. New Laws (1542)
    • 1. These laws were made to protect indigenous people from encomiendas. It "abolished" slavery.
    • 2. Latin america
    • 3. 1542
    • 4. In a way it put an end to indigenous slavery.
  38. "Obedezco pero no cumplo"
    • 1. Viceroys thought this phrase when the council of indies would make rules that they thought weren't acceptable.
    • 2. In latin america
    • 3. During colonial period.
    • 4. Viceroys had the last saying in what goes on in the Americas. They had the power to veto any law.
  39. Hacienda
    • 1. Plantation. Large estates.
    • 2. All across latin America
    • 3. during the colonial period
    • 4. This was where most of the debt peonage would happen. Also most slaves would work here.
  40. Virgen de Guadalupe (1531)
    • 1. Is considered the mother of mexico. she appeared to Juan Diego
    • 2. In mexico
    • 3. In 1531, she appeared to Juan diego
    • 4. She appeared as a dark skinned lady. Prompting people to think she might have been indigenous.
  41. Palmares (1694)
    • 1. Was the biggest formed group of runaway slaves in Brazil. They were made as a legend. It was believed that they were preparing to over throw Portugal. They were eventually caught.
    • 2. In Brazil
    • 3. 1694
    • 4. It made the Quilombos to think twice about making big groups to live with. Bigger groups were easier to find
  42. Mazorca Club (1829-1852)
    • 1. It was a goon squad that was ran by the dictator jose Manuel Rosas.
    • 2. In Argentina
    • 3. 1829-1852
    • 4. They named it mazorca because he tried to relate to the poor campesinos. In reality it meant "mas horcas".
  43. Quilombos (1600s)
    • 1. Runaway slaves in brazil that formed groups to help each other.
    • 2. Brazil
    • 3. 1600s?
    • 4. They helped preserve african traditions.
  44. "Growth without development"
    • 1. is a type of economy in which a small number of people benefit from it.
    • 2. Latin america
    • 3. It still happens till this day.
    • 4. The economy is growing but it only has an impact on a small number of people. It should impact everyone fairly the same.
  45. Caudillos
    • 1. a spanish term that signifies dictator or leader in a authoritarian system.
    • 2. This was very common in latin america.
    • 3. There are still some that exist today.
    • 4. This type of government was accepted by many latin american countries.
  46. Monroe Doctrine (1823)
    • 1. a document which stated that the united states would support the independence of latin american countries. It would use their military if necessary.
    • 2. In the U.S made for the latin american countries.
    • 3. 1823
    • 4. It gave permission to the United states to intervene in latin american affairs whenever it felt that it was being threatened.
  47. Winfield Scott (1786-1866)
    • 1. Is a highly regarded General for the U.S. He out maneuver Santa Anna in the Mexican-American war.
    • 2. U.S
    • 3. 1786-1866
    • 4. He out maneuvered Santa Anna. Ultimately defeated him.
  48. Agustin Iturbide (1783-1824)
    • 1. He teamed up with Captain Vicente Guerrero. They pass the "plan the igual".
    • 2. In Mexico
    • 3. 1783-1824
    • 4. He passed the "plan de igual" in 1821. He led the revolution. He became the king. He had three guarantees. Independent from Spain. Creoles and peninsulares are equal. And catholic church was only religion.
  49. El Grito de Iparanga (September 7, 1822)
    • 1. Brazil independence day in 1822.
    • 2. Brazil
    • 3. September 7, 1822
    • 4. Before he made his decision, he traveled all around Brazil to make sure that people wanted a the independence or not.
  50. Juan Manuel Rosas (1829-1852)
    • 1. dictator in Argentina. Had a goon squad called "Mazorca Club". Conquered argentinian indians.
    • 2. Argentina
    • 3. 1829-1852 he was in power.
    • 4. The reason why he became the leader was because he brought stability and peace to Argentina. He impressed people by conquering argentinian indians .
  51. The Alamo (1836)
    • 1. a battle known to be famous for people that were in it instead of the meaning of it. They were fighting to keep slaves. They were in a small fort. Around 200 texans.
    • 2. Texas
    • 3. 1836
    • 4. The battle wasnt important. Davy crockett jim bowie were amongst the famous people that were there.
  52. Battle of the San Jacinto river (1836)
    • 1. The U.S army cornered Santa Anna's army. This was when they captured Santa anna.
    • 2. Texas
    • 3.1836
    • 4. Santa Anna bargained his life for Texas. He gave Texas its independence for his life. This was when Texas gained it independence.

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