Critical Reasoning

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Author:
JanineG14
ID:
92829
Filename:
Critical Reasoning
Updated:
2011-07-07 03:17:48
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Critical Reasoning
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Critical Reasoning
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  1. What is the strategy to use for Critical Reasoning Questions?
    • 1) Read the question stem BEFORE the stimulus
    • 2) After reading the stimulus, identify the question category (SWIMMER)
    • 3) Select the answer choice based on the question category strategy
  2. The following trigger words are used for which question type?

    Justify/Support, Assumption, Premise, Presupposition, Depends, Based on
    Strengthen (Assumption)
  3. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Strengthen questions?
    • Focus: Author's conclusion (key assumptions)
    • Answer: Form of a premise
    • Tip: Answer MUST provide new info that strengthens conclusion (NOT necessarily proves it)
  4. The following trigger words are used for which question type?

    Undermine, Cast Doubt, Jeopardize, Challenge, Err, Refute, Call into question, Discrepancy, Vulnerable to Criticism
    Weaken (Flaw)
  5. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Weaken questions?
    • Focus: Author's conclusion (gap in logic)
    • Answer: Form of a premise
    • Tip: Answer exposes the gap in logic of the conclusion. Find a missing assumption (new info)
  6. The following trigger words are used for which question type?

    Deduced, Gathered, Concluded, Is supported by, Must be true
    Inference
  7. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Inference questions?
    • Focus: Premises in the stimulus
    • Answer: A deductive conclusion
    • Tip: Find the answer that MUST be true based on the stimulus. Eliminate options that are not necessarily true.
  8. What is a key "tone" to look for in inference questions, which tells you that answer choice is wrong?
    Commanding verbiage (should, should not)
  9. The following trigger words are used for which question type?

    Argumentative technique, reasoning, proceeds by
    Method of Reasoning
  10. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Method of Reasoning questions?
    • Focus: Author's logic or argumentative technique (not the subject matter)
    • Answer: A description of the Author's logic
    • Tip: Focus on the approach (not the subject matter). Eliminate choices that are inconsistent with the stimulus.
  11. The following trigger words are used for which question type?

    Parallels, Logical Structure, Most Similar to, Illustrates, Example, Best Fits
    Mimic the Reasoning (Illustrate the Principle)
  12. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Mimic the Reasoning questions?
    • Focus: Logic pattern of the stimulus
    • Answer: An argument (like the stimulus)
    • Tip: Focus on the pattern of reasoning, not the subject matter. Choose an answer that precisely matches the structure.
  13. The following trigger words are used for which question type?

    Explain, Resolve, Apparent Discrepancy, Reconcile
    Explain the Paradox
  14. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Explain the Paradox questions?
    • Focus: Specifics of the paradox
    • Answer: Premise
    • Tip: Clearly identify the points that contradict each other. Choose the answer that explains how the contradictions can both be true.
  15. What's a key word to look for in explaining the paradox to separate the two points?
    "yet" or "however" (A hard transition)
  16. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Roles of Portions in Boldface?
    • Focus: Argument's logic, specifically the roles of portions in boldface.
    • Answer: Descriptions of the roles
    • Tip: Before reading the stimulus, scan the answers. Then deconstruct the argument (separate the conclusion, premises, evaluate the logic). Then pick an answer that describes BOTH boldface portions.
  17. When the word "Supports" is used how do you determine if it's a Strengthen or Inference question?
    If support goes down (from stimulus to answer) = Inference
  18. If support goes up (from answer to stimulus) = Strengthen
  19. If the question stem states "if true" or "were true" (without mention of "statements above"), the answer choice must be what form? And thus which options for categories?
    Answer is a premise. Catagory will either be: Strengthen, Weaken, or Explain the Paradox
  20. What are the three P's and three S's? Where do they occur and why?
    • Principle, Policy, Plan
    • Strategy, Situation, Scenario

    Used in the stimulus sometimes, rather than making a case/argument it will describe a situation to evaluate.
  21. Does a stimulus using the three P's or S's have a conclusion?
    No, not usually. There is usually a purpose, which acts similiar to a conclusion.
  22. If you have a plan, you need to identify the...
    goal
  23. What's the focus, answer, and tip for solving Illustrate the Principle (Mimic) questions?
    • Focus: Principle/Policy
    • Answer: Scenario that illustrates the principle/policy
    • Tip: Identify the principle/policy. Select an answer which correctly provides an example of that principle defined in the stimulus.
  24. The correct answer to an Assumption question doesn't merely strengthen the conclusion...
    it is REQUIRED for the conclusion to be drawn.
  25. What is the strategy to use for testing answers to an Assumption question?
    Answer Negation Technique (ANT). Negate the answer choice and test if the argument becomes invalid. If so, then it is the correct answer.

    Negate the verb & main clause only.
  26. What are the 2 fatal flaws for assumption answers?
    • 1) Too Strong (All or None)
    • 2) Too Specific
  27. What's the differnce b/w a Flaw & regular Weaken question?
    A flaw question may have an answer that is a description as to why the conclusion is already flawed (not necessarily a premise/new info).
  28. Useful to Evaluate questions, should be treated as what type of question? And why?
    Weaken, b/c it will have a stimulus with a gap in logic. And the answer will have new info that exposes that gap.
  29. When facing a Complete the Passage question, the approach should be...
    focus on the word or phrase that introduces the answers and determine the form of the answer (premise, conclusion, description, or scenario) and infer the type of question based on this (SWIMMER).
  30. Note: Proper inferences must always be made based on info given in the passage. If an answer choice is not supported by the passage, then it's not correct.

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