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A combination of people, hardware, softeware, networks, and data resources.
It collects, transfroms, and disseminates information in an organization.
Information systems support what (3) things in Business?
- 1. Business processes and
2. Business decision making,
3. Strategic competitive advantage
Major categories of computer systems are?
– midrange computers,
– mainframe computers.
Computer systems consist of ? (2)
(1) Computers (CPU) (processing)
(2) Peripherals - input, output, and secondary data storage devices
What are the (2) Major IS categories ?
1. Operations Support Systems
– Transaction Processing Systems
– Process Control Systems
– Enterprise Collaboration Systems
2. Management Support Systems
– Management Information Systems (MIS)
–Decision Support Systems (DSS)
Executive Information Systems (EIS)
Electronic Business Systems consist of ?
1. Functional Business Systems
2. Enterprise (Cross-Functional) Business Systems
Functional Business Systems support what?
- support traditional business functions and operations like:
- –Human resource management
What crosses the boundaries of traditional business functions:?
- Enterprise (Cross-Functional) Business Systems
- – Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
- – Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
- – Supply Chain Management (SCM)
What controls the creation and use of databases?
Database management system (DBMS)
What supports communication,
coordination and collaboration?
• Collaboration System (Groupware)
is buying and selling of products, services, and information over the Internet and extranets.
What are (3) categories of E-commerce?
– Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
- – Business-to-Business (B2B)
- – Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
Information systems support
decisions for the three levels of management
activity such as?
- Strategic (unstructured decisions)
- Tactical (semi-structured decisions)
- Operational (structured decisions)
- Unstructured decisions - can
- NOT be specified at advance.
- Structured decisions - can
- be specified at advance
What are (3) Management Support Systems?
- 1. Traditional Management Information Systems (MIS) à reporting function - for structured
- 2. Decision Support Systems
- - use analytical models (a model base)
- - Interactive
- - semistructured decisions
Executive Information Systems (EIS)
- -provide strategic information for the needs of executives and
- other decision makers
- -some MIS and DSS features + more graphics.
What is a traditional form of reports,
Periodic Scheduled Reports - a pre-specified format on a regular basis.
examples - weekly sales analysis reports, etc.
What type of report is generated when a specific set of conditions occur.
- when some process exceeds given parameters and requires management action.
What type of reports provide information whenever a manager demands it.
Demand Reports and Responses
What type of reports provides information that is pushed
to a manager’s networked PC?
- Push Reporting
- - webcasting software selectively broadcasts reports over the company’s intranet.
Define,Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
to analyze complex relationships among large amounts of data stored.
What are the Basic OLAP?
- aggregation of data.
- 2. Drill-Down – (opposite to #1) -
- displaying detailed data that comprises consolidated data
- 3 .Slicing and Dicing - looking at the
- database from different viewpoints.
Define, Decision support system (DSS)?
- is an interactive computer-based IS that uses an analytical
- model (a model base) to support semi-structured and
- unstructured decision making.
A ________ is a software component that consists of
models used in analytical and computational routines.
This is a science and technology based on disciplines such as computer science, biology, psychology,
linguistics, mathematics, and engineering.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
What works to develop computer functions normally associated with human intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
What are (3) major scientific areas of AI?
- 1. Cognitive Science
- 2. Robotics
- 3. Natural Interface
The Major AI business application areas are?
- – Expert Systems
- – Neural Networks
- – Fuzzy Logic
- – Genetic Algorithms
- – Virtual Reality
- – Intelligent Agents
What is a knowledge-based IS that uses its knowledge about a specific complex application area to act as an expert consultant to end users?
Expert System (ES)
Define, Neural Networks
- •Computing systems modeled after the brain’s
- mesh-like network of interconnected processing elements, called neurons.
- This enables the network to
- learn to recognize patterns
- and relationships in the data it processes
What is a method of reasoning that allows for approximate values and inferences?
What simulate a Darwinian evolutionary process that yields increasingly
better solutions to a
- Genetic Algorithms
- • useful when thousands of solutions arepossible.
Componets of Virtual Reality (VR):
- • is a computer-simulated reality
- • virtual worlds - through sight, sound, and touch.
- • uses special devices
- • applications: computer-aided design (CAD), medical diagnostics, flight simulators, video games.
___________ is a software surrogate that fulfills (accomplishes) specific tasks for end users. It •uses built-in and learned knowledge about how an end user behaves
Intelligent Agent (IA)
What are (2) (IA) categories for business computing?
- 1. User Interface Agents
- 2. Information Management Agents
What are the (5) processes of Systems
Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?
. Systems Investigation (Product
: Feasibility Study)
Systems Analysis (Product:
- 3. Systems Design (Product: System
- 4. Systems Implementation (Product:
- Operational System)
- 5. Systems Maintenance. (Product:
- Improved System)
___________is the rapid development and testing of working models (prototypes) of new applications in
iterative, interactive process with extensive end-user involvement.
Application development using prototyping - steps:
4.Use and Maintain the System.
Feasibility - major categories:
- •Operational Feasibility: how well a proposed information system supports the
- objectives of the organization.
- •Technical Feasibility: whether suitable hardware and software can be
- acquired or developed.
- •Economic Feasibility: (cost/benefit
- analysis): whether the proposed IS benefits are greater than costs. - tangible and intangible costs and benefits
- •Human Factors Feasibility
- -Political /Legal Feasibility
Whic of the (SDLC) answers the questions:
–What are our opportunities?
–What are our priorities?
–Can IS be used to address our
Which of the (SDLC) answers the question:
•WHAT the system should do ?
HOW will the system accomplish
the objectives ?
- Systems Design
- 1. User Interface Design.
- 2. Data Design.
- 3. Process Design
Reduction of user fear and resistance to change includes:
- –Educating employees on the need for change.
- –Training employees in core competencies.
- –Developing ways to measure and reward performance.
- –Analyzing the impact of changebefore committing it.
- –Encouraging direct user involvement in organizational change and system development.
____________is the unauthorized use, access, modification, and destruction of information,
hardware, software or network resources, and the unauthorized release of information.
Categories of Computer Crimes
- 1. Hacking - unauthorized access and use of
- networked computers
- 2. Cyber Theft - electronic breaking and
- entering involving the theft of money.
- 3. Unauthorized Use at Work
- 4. Piracy - unauthorized copying of software.
- 5. Computer Viruses and Worms - spread destructive program routines that can result in destroying the contents of memory, hard disks, and
- other storage devices
the goal - to design healthy work environments that are safe, comfortable, and pleasant for people to work in can be define as?
Security measures of the E-Business
- -Fire Walls.
- -Denial of Service Defenses.
- -Monitoring E-Mail
- -Virus Defenses
Levels of service in the case of a computer system failure:
- 1.Fail-Over Fault Tolerance. Redundant
- processors, peripherals or software take over in the event of a system error.
- 2.Fail-Safe Fault Tolerance. Computer
- systems continue to operate at the same level even if there is a major failure.
. Computer systems continue to operate at a reduced level.
____________ are methods and devices
that ensure the accuracy, validity, and propriety of IS activities.
Information System Controls
Key areas for IS control include....
- • Input Controls.
- • Processing Controls (Hardware and Software Controls)
- - Fire walls.
- - Checkpoints.
- • Output Controls.
- • Storage Controls.
The purchase of goods or services from third-party partners that were previously
Relocation of an organization’s business processes to a lower-cost location, (usually overseas)