Physiology chaper 4

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Physiology chaper 4
2011-07-04 01:27:46

Phys class
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  1. Energy is
    the capacity to do work (ATP)
  2. Chemical work
    • The making and breaking of chemical bonds enables cells and organisms to grow carry our normal activities.
    • EX: forming chemical bond
  3. Transport wrok
    • enables cells to move ions, molecules and larger particals through the cell membrane as well as membranes of organelles in the cell
    • EX: Some endoplasmic reticulum use energy to import calcium ions from cytosol
  4. Mechanical work
    used for movement (in animals) in the cell organelles moving around the cell, cells changing shape or cilia beating
  5. First Law of thermodynamics
    total amount of energy in the universe is constant;energy cannot be created or destroyed
  6. Kinetic energy
    is the energy of motion
  7. Potential energy
    • is stored energy
    • ex: ball on top of a hill
  8. Activation energy
    is the initial input of energy required to begin a reaction
  9. Exergonic reactions
    • Are energy producing.
    • ex: they break down large molocules like glycogen in to glucose to make energy
  10. Endergonic reactions
    • are energy-utilizing
    • ex: takes glucose and binds it to make glycogen to store in the liver for later use
  11. Reversible reactions
    a reaction that can proceed in both directions
  12. Irreversible
    A reaction that can proceed in one direction but not the other
  13. Enzymes
    are biological catalysts (helpers) that speed up the rate of chemical reactions with out themselves being changed. If enzyme is taken away the process is slowed down and cell may die. Each enzyme reacts with only limited and selected substrates. "specificity"
  14. Competitive inhibiters
    bind to the active site, and look like the substrate but it inactivates the enzyme
  15. Non active inhibiters
    bind to the non active site and change the active site's shape to prevent substrate attachment
  16. Induced fit model
    States that neither the substrate nor the products can bend to bind with the enzyme, the enyme must bend to allow reaction
  17. Enzymes are altered by
    pH temp and modulator molecules
  18. Denatured
    to destroy
  19. Feedback inhibition
    is an example of negative feed back that inhibits the activity of early enzymes and modifies the enzyme
  20. Equilibrium
    the rate of the reaction is equal in both reverse and forward reaction
  21. Oxidation
    • Oxidation
    • Is
    • Loss of electrons
  22. Reduction
    • Reduction
    • Is
    • Gaining of electrons
  23. Hydrolysis
    spliting molecules by adding water
  24. Dehydration
    Removing water to make larger molecules from small ones
  25. Ligation
    stick together two substrates by using ATP
  26. Gylcolosis
    • converts glucose into Pyruvate
    • One molecule of glucose is converted into two pyruvate two ATP two NADH and two H+
    • No O2 needed
  27. Metabolism
    All chemical reactions in the body
  28. Catabolic reactions
    • Release energy and break down large biomolecules
    • ex: Glycogen into glucose
  29. Anabolic reactions
    • require a net input of energy and synthesize large biomolecules
    • ex: Glucose into Glycogen
  30. Aerobic pathways
    require Oxygen and yield the most ATP
  31. Anaerobic pathways
    Can proceed with out oxygen but produce ATP in much smaller quantities
  32. Anaerobic Metabolism
    Pyruvate through the citric acid cycle yields ATP, carbon dioxide, water and high energy electrons captured by NADH and FADH2
  33. Beta Oxidation
    Lipids are broekn down for ATP production
  34. Translation
    When mRNA leaves the nucleus goes to cytosol where the tRNA and rRNA assembles amino acids into a designated sequence
  35. Transcription
    is the formation of mRNA in the nucleus

    Gene activation, Transcription, Translation, Protein synthisis