Chapter 10 The Nervous System

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Atljavy8
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92933
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Chapter 10 The Nervous System
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2011-07-05 20:53:01
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Intro Medical Terminology
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Chapter 10 The Nervous System
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  1. encephal/o
    means brain
  2. myel/o
    means spinal cord
  3. neur/i, neur/o
    means nerves
  4. ambul/o
    means to walk
  5. cephal/o
    means head
  6. concuss/o
    means shaken together
  7. contus/o
    means bruise
  8. -dural
    means pertaining to dura matter
  9. ech/o
    means sound
  10. encephal/o
    means brain
  11. epi-
    means above
  12. -esthesia
    means sensation, feeling
  13. klept/o
    means to steal
  14. mening/o
    means meninges
  15. myel/o
    means spinal cord and bone marrow
  16. narc/o
    means stupor
  17. neur/i, neur/o
    means nerve
  18. -phobia
    means abnormal fear
  19. psych/o
    means mind
  20. somn/o
    means sleep
  21. sub-
    means below
  22. acrophobia
    an excessive fear of being in high places
  23. Alzheimer's disease
    a group of disorders associated with degenerative changes in brain structure leading to characteristic symptoms including progressive memory loss, impaired cognition, and personality changes.
  24. amnesia
    a disturbance in the memory marked by total or partial inability to recall past experiences
  25. amobarbital
    a barbiturate used as a sedative and hypnotic
  26. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    a degenerative disease of the motor neurons in which patients become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed; also know as Lou Gehrig's disease
  27. analgesic
    a drug that relieves pain without affecting consciousness.
  28. anesthesia
    the absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain
  29. anesthesiologist
    a physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents before and during surgery
  30. anesthetic
    the medication used to induce anesthesia. The anesthetic may be topical, local, regional, or general.
  31. anesthetist
    a specialist, other than a physician, trained in administering anesthesia
  32. anxiety state
    a feeling of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness that stems from the anticipation of danger, the source of which is largely unknown or unrecognized
  33. aphasia
    a condition, often due to brain damage associated with a stroke, in which there is the loss of the ability to speak, write, or comprehend speech or the spoken word
  34. autistic
    a disorder in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships, behaves in compulsive and ritualistic ways, and frequently has poor communication skills; also known as an autism
  35. barbiturate
    a class of drugs whose major action is a calming or depressed effect on the central nervous system
  36. Bell's palsy
    paralysis of the facial nerve (seventh cramial) that causes drooping only on the affected side of the face
  37. catatonic
    behavior marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, and a tendency to remain in a fixed posture
  38. cerebral
    means pertaining to the cerebrum or brain
  39. cerebral palsy
    a condition caused by a brain injury that occurs during pregnancy, at birth, or soon after birth that is caracterized by poor muscle control and other neurologic deficiencies
  40. cerebrovascular accident
    damage to the brain when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood vessel supplying it is blocked; aslo known as a stroke
  41. claustrophobia
    an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
  42. cognition
    the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory
  43. comatose
    the condition of being in a coma
  44. concussion
    a voilent shaking up or jarring of the brain
  45. contusion
    an injury that does not break the skin and is characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain
  46. cranial hematoma
    a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
  47. craniocele
    a congenital gap in the skull with herniation of brain substance; also known as an encephalocele
  48. delirium
    a potentially reversible condition often associated with a high fever that comes on suddenly in which the patient is confused, disoriented, and unable to think clearly
  49. delirium tremens
    a form of acute organic brain syndrome due to alcohol withdrawal that is characterized by sweating, tremor, restlessness, anxiety, mental confusion, and hallucinations
  50. delusion
    a false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary
  51. dementia
    a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities including impaired memory, thinking, and judgement.
  52. dyslexia
    a learning disability characterized by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education
  53. echoencephalography
    the use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
  54. electroconvulsive therapy
    a controlled convulsion produced by the passage of an electric current through the brain to treat depression and mental disorders; also know as electrochock therapy
  55. elecctroencephalography
    the process of recording electrial brain-wave activity
  56. empathy
    the ability to understand another person's mental and emotional state without becoming personally involved
  57. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  58. encephalography
    a radiographic study demonstrating the intracranial fluid containing spaces of the brain
  59. epidural anesthesia
    is regional anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine
  60. grand mal epilepsy
    which is the more severe form, is characterized by generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  61. Guillain-Barre syndrome
    a condition characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that may lead to temporary paralysis
  62. hallucination
    a sense perception that has no basis in external stimulations
  63. hemorrhagic stroke

    aka: bleed
    a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures
  64. hydrocephalus
    an abnormally increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain
  65. hyperesthesia
    a condition of excessive sensitivity to stimuli
  66. hypochondriasis
    a preoccupation with fears of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on misinterpretation of one or more bodily signs or symptoms
  67. kleptomania
    a personality disorder characterized by a recurrent failure to resist impules to steal objects not for immediate use or their monetary value
  68. malingering
    the intentional creation of false or exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives such as avoiding work
  69. meningitis
    an inflammation of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord
  70. meningocele
    the protrusion of the membranes of the brain or spinal cord through a defect in the skull or spinal cord
  71. migraine headache
    a syndrome characterized by sudden, severe, sharp headache usually present on only one side
  72. multiple sclerosis
    a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by scattered patches of demyelination of nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord
  73. Munchausen syndrome
    a condition in which the "patient" repeatedly makes up clinically convincing simulations of disease for the purpose of gaining medical attention
  74. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord; also inflammation of bone marrow
  75. myelography
    a radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium
  76. myelosis
    a tumor of the spinal cord; also an abnormal proliferation of bone marrow tissue.
  77. narcissistic
    a pattern of an exaggerated need for admiration and complete lack of empathy
  78. narcolepsy
    a syndrome characterized by recurrent uncontrollable seizures of drowsiness and sleep
  79. neurologist
    a specialist in diagnosing and treating disorders of the centeral nervous system
  80. paresthesia
    an abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, or numbness, for no apparent reason
  81. Parkinson's disease
    a chronic slowly progressive, degenerative, central nervous system disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, a masklike facial expression, and a shuffling gait
  82. peripheral neuropathy
    a painful condition of the nerves of the hands and feet due to peripheral nerve damage; also known as peripheral neuropathy
  83. petit mal epilepsy

    aka: absence epilepsy
    is the milder form in which there is a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness, lasting only a few seconds. Seizures are very mild, do not include convulsive movements, and may not be noticed
  84. poliomyelitis
    a viral infection of the gray matter of the spinal cord that may result in paralysis
  85. posttraumatic stress disorder
    the development of symptoms such as sleep disorders and anxiety after a psychologically traumatic event such as witnessing a shooting, surviving a natural disaster, or being held as a hostage
  86. psychiatrist
    a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependentcies, emotional problems, and mental illness
  87. psychologist
    a specialist, other than a physician, in evaluating and treating emotional problems.
  88. pyromania
    a personality disorder characterized by a recurrent failure to resist impulses to set fires
  89. schizophrenia
    a psychotic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech that is often incoherent, and disruptive or catatonic behavior
  90. sciatica
    inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain along the course of the nerve through the thigh and leg
  91. seizure
    a sudden, violent, involuntary contractin of a group of muscles caused by a disturbance in brain functin; also known as a convulsion
  92. syncope
    the brief loss of consciousness caused by brief lack of oxygen in the brain; also known as fainting
  93. tetanus
    an acute and potentially fatal bacterial infection of the central nervous system caused by the tetanus bacillus
  94. thalamotomy
    a surgical incision into the thalamus to quiet the tremors of Parkinson's disease, to treat some psychotic disorders, or to stop intractable pain
  95. tic douloureux
    inflammation of the trigeminal nerve characterized by sudden, intense, sharp pain on oe side of the face; also known as trigeminal neuralgia
  96. transient ischemic attack
    the temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain that may be a warning of an impending stroke

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