Geology Test

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Geology Test
2011-07-04 17:10:26
geology test earthquakes structures mountains geologic resources mass movements

Geology Test for 7/5/2011
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  1. Types of Deformation
    • 1.) elastic deformation – rock will return to original size & shape after the force is removed.
    • (Elastic limit – point at which a rock breaks)

    2.) brittle deformation – rock breaks

    3.) ductile deformation – rock bends and doesn’t return to original shape when the force is removed.
  2. Types of Stress (Force acting upon a rock)
    • Ithostatic (confining) presssure– equal in all directions;
    • changes size, not shape

    differential stress – not equal in all directions

    • compressional stress –pushing together
    • -shortens & thickens crust
    • -at convergent plate boundaries

    • tensional stress – pulling apart
    • -lengthens & thins crust
    • -at divergent plate boundaries

    • shear stress – parallel; forces in opposite directions
    • -at transform & convergent
    • -plate boundaries
  3. Orogeny
    Mountain building event
  4. Angle of Repose
    Steepest angle of which unconsolidated material is stable
  5. How is Mass Movement Classified?
    Type of material

    Type of motion

  6. Ore
    Rock that contains a desired material in concentrations economic to extract
  7. Liquefaction
    • Occurs in water saturated sediments
    • -amplifies vibrations
    • -sinks structures
  8. How is a Tsunami generated in an earthquake?
    Underwater EQ moves the seafloor up at a fault, pushing water up before it crashes down
  9. Epicentre
    Point on Earths surface, directly above the focus
  10. Focus
    First movement on a fault (where earthquake begins)
  11. Primary Wave
    (P Wave)
    Body Wave (travels through earth)
    • Compressional "push & pull" motion
    • Fastest waves
  12. Secondary Waves
    (S Waves)
    Body Wave (travels through earth)
    • Shear "side to side" motion
    • Always slower than P Waves
    • Cannot travel through liquids
  13. Rayleigh Waves
    -Surface Wave: travels along earths surface
    Up-and-down movement
  14. Love Waves
    -Surface Wave: travels along earths surface
    Side to side movement
  15. How does a Seismograph work
    Works through inertia (ground moves under an object that wants to stay at rest)
  16. What is Modified Mercalli Index? Why is it useful to scientist?
    • Measures intensity (degree of shaking)
    • Helps us see how the damage can vary from one earthquake to another
  17. Isostasy
    Crust floating in gravitational balance
  18. Pegmatites?
    • Last part of an igneous intrusion to cool
    • Can be enriched in incompatible elements
  19. Kimberlites?
    • Volcanic pipe from the mantle
    • Ex. Diamond
  20. Resources
    Total amount of a geologic material in all deposits, discovered and undiscovered
  21. Reserves
    Discovered resources that are economic to extract under conditions such as economics, technology, and politics
  22. Shield (of continent)
    Old original part of continent
  23. Basement (of continent)
    Older metamorphic & intrusive igneous rocks upon which younger sediments rest
  24. Terrane
    Crustal block with a different history than surrounding blocks
  25. Different grades of coal are?
    • Peat
    • Lignite
    • Bitumunous
    • Anthracite
  26. Four things you need to have an oil deposit are?
    • Source Rock-organic rich shale
    • Must pass through oil window
    • Reservoir Rock-good porosity & good permeability
    • Trap-impermeable
  27. Oil Window
    Conditions (temperature) needed to make oil
  28. What causes Hydrothermal mineral deposits?
    Hot water circulating through rock
  29. Vein Deposit
    Tabular body of minerals deposited in a crack
  30. Disseminated Deposit
    minerals scattered along tiny cracks in a large volume of rock, extracted by open pit mines
  31. Horst
    Uplifted area
  32. Graben
    Flat ground area
  33. Fold & Thrust Mountains form in?
    continent-continent collision environments
  34. How do fault block mountains form?
    by movement on normal faults