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  1. the ocean floor is blanked with
    organic, inorganic matter and non decomposed fossels
  2. terrigenous
    originated on land. quartz, clay and mud from weather contiental rocks
  3. biogenous
    remains of marine organims
  4. hydrogenous
    elements and minerals preciptating from seawater"hardwater rings"
  5. cosmogenous
    sea craters debris from space
  6. terrigenous sediments
    • grey and red material
    • most abudent materal in volume
    • most are deep sea clay
  7. how are terrigenous sediments transported
    by wind that blows over africa and sends it over the atlantic ocean to the caribean, bahamas and florida
  8. how are terrigenous sediments transported #2
    • valcano ash blowing out of the atmosphere
    • glacially trasport "sand and mud" from an iceburg drifting
  9. what colors are iceburgs
    brown and black
  10. what is a green iceburg
  11. abyssal plains accumulation
    .5 to 1cm per 10,000 years
  12. contiental shelves
    1 to 4 cm per 100 years
  13. deltas and estuorres
    2 to 3 cm per day
  14. terrigenous sediments are much less from
    distance from the shore increases
  15. biogenous sediments
    • mainly made of tiny micro shells
    • form form the remaing living orgainsms
  16. biogenous sediments are most common
    by volume and they cover more of the ocan floor
  17. 2 main sediments
    calareous and silicecus
  18. calcareous ooze
    • most in the sea
    • layers of muddy, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) bearing softrock sediment on the seafloor
  19. siliceous ooze
    made of quartz and siliceous skeletal remains of organisms
  20. what are common sources of biogenous sediment on the continental shelf
    coral clams oysters etc
  21. sediments
    biology side
  22. macifica
    whats in the water calcium
  23. diatoms
  24. hydrogenous sediments
    forms from material that precipitate directly out of sea water.
  25. Types of hydrofenous sedments
    • carbonates (calcite)
    • phosphates(deep ocean floor, oil, birdpoop)
    • mangnise nodules
    • salt
  26. polymatallic nodules
    htdrogenous sediment usually found in deep ocean areas free from other sediments, common in the pacific ocean.
  27. cosmogenous sediments
    formed from debris from space (mostly micrometeteorites) 20,000 tons per year silicate and iron/nickle materal.
  28. microtektites
    form from major impacts, looks like glass beads
  29. chesapeak bay is covered by
  30. calcareous ooze distribution
    • produced in large amounts but limited in where it accumlates
    • disolves in cold acidic water, (acidic water) typically in deep marine area
  31. the carbonare compensation depth
    • depth below which calcite accumulation is excedeed by calcite dissolution
    • deeper in the atlantic then in the pacific
  32. calcite skeletons desolve below the
    CCD so calcareous ooze dont accumulate in the deep ocean regions , abyssal plains, trenches
  33. siliceous ooze distribution
    produced in less amounts then calareous ooze
  34. distribution does
    not disolve easy in cold acidic water
  35. siliceous ooze found in
    deeper reagons of the polar ocean
  36. siliceous ooze percentage cover by ocean floor
    • 14%
    • 48% calcareous ooze
  37. marine sediment economic value
    phosphates, managenese, nodules, gas hydrates( natural gas locked in ice)
  38. climate regulation
    the ocean is a major part of earths carbon doixide cycle, sediments contain large amounts of it
  39. scientfic value
    find clues to ancient oceanorgraphy and atmospheric conditions
  40. properties of ocean water
    • absorbes and releases large amout of heat
    • absorbes solar radation( tropics) and retains it long enough for transfer into polar reagons.
  41. large bodies of water change temp
    very slowly, stablizing global climate and influencing huricans.
  42. pressure increase with depth
    1 atmosphere for every 10 meters
  43. avg shelf pressure
    13 atmospheres
  44. avg abyssal plain pressure
    500 atmospheres
  45. deepest trench pressure
    1100 atmosphere
  46. max depth of a diver
    130 ft
  47. tendency of heat in the cental atlantic and pacific ocean to be shifted
  48. wind can
    raise or lower ocean temp
  49. sunlight is absorbed
    quickley in clear water
  50. at 1 meter
    60% light absorbed
  51. 10 meters
    80% light is absorbed
  52. 100 meters
    93% light is absorbed
  53. 1 kilometer
    100% light is absorbed
  54. what type of light is absorbed first
    infered light (heat)
  55. two other absorbed quick
    red light then ultaviolate
  56. what is not affected the same
  57. what deep ocean color goes depest
    bluish tint (blue light)
  58. what type of sound quickly absorbed
    High Frequency
  59. what type of much farther and east broadcast
    Low Frequency
  60. shound travels how many times faster in water then air
    5 times
  61. how is speed influenced
    water temp and water pressure
  62. the zone of min sound velocity but greatest efficency slower but more effective
    SOFAR Layer
  63. what depth for min sound velocity effective sound
  64. used to locate shiprecks and map the landscape of the ocean floor and makes good pictures
    side-scan sonar
  65. ocean water within avg salt content will freeze at
  66. areas of greater salt content the water will
    freeze at a lower temp
  67. dead sea 9 times salter takes
    -18F to freeze
  68. when the water freezes what is not included
  69. most ice water is
    fresh water
  70. ocean water freezes at 28 but melt at what
  71. frozen seawater allows to be larger and drift
    closter to the equater
  72. two types of ice
    sea ice and icebergs
  73. what is sea ice
    • forms from frozen sea water
    • thin 5 to 30 ft
    • brittle
    • krill feed on algae beneath the ice
    • forms seasonal floes or ice fields
  74. ice bergs
    • form from glacial ice
    • form on land from compacted snow
    • more common on costal water
    • massive stronger and dence
    • not all white, if green, it turned over and alge on it
  75. who tracks ice burgs since the titanic sank
    international ice patrol
  76. pinnacle ice bergs
    • from small glaciers
    • most common in northern hemisphere (altantic ocean)
    • carried long distances by current
  77. tabular iceburgs
    • form from massive contiental glaciers
    • most common in souther hemespher
    • stay close to the antartic coast
  78. the IIP has expirental demolition of icebergs by
    • areal bombing
    • naval guns
    • thermite charges
    • napalm
  79. oceans contain trace amounts of
    disolved gases
  80. salinity
    the total quanitiy of disolved inorganic material in the water
  81. the avg salinity of the ocean is
    3.5% or 35 ppt( part per thousand)
  82. virtually everthing is disolved in
    seawater (this is part of the oceans 35ppt salinity) (nonliving)
  83. what is the dominate salt
    NaCL (table salt)
  84. what can alter the oceans salinity
    any process that adds or removes materals such as calcium iron and patassium
  85. regional salinity may be lower because of
    • heavy rain
    • major rivers
    • promixity to melting glaciers and or icebergs
  86. reagonal salinity my be raised by
    • higher evaporation rates
    • isolation
  87. salinity also varies on
    depth season and latitiude
  88. what type of storm can change salt levels
  89. how is salt added to the ocean
    rivers and undersea valcanoies
  90. rivers transport
    disolved materal genterated by chemical beakdown(weathering)
  91. rivers add what
    patasium iron calcium sofium and allumnum.
  92. underwater valcanoes add salt
    • seamounds
    • midocean ridge
    • hydrothermal vents
    • add large large amounts of disolved materal
  93. underwater valcanoes add
    icon mangnes magnesium, sulfer phororus coper
  94. the ocean water is relativley stable bc
    its constanly removed at roughly the same rate it is beign added
  95. salt is removed by the oceans by
    • 1.evorapation( creates hydrogenous sediments in areas of high temp high evaporation)
    • 2.adsorbition onto pelagic mud and clays (small electrical charges bind large amounts of salt to ocean sediments)
    • 3. biologicactivity (the living organisms creat shells and skeletal materals.
  96. how low is the materal removed
    depends on the burrial of organisms after death.
  97. what keeps ocean in balance with salt
    marine life
  98. most gases are
    easily dissolved in sea water
  99. atmospheric proportions
    • 1 nitrogen (n2)
    • 2 oxygen (o2)
    • 3 carbon dioxide (co2)
    • All shallow water
  100. what cycles through air into ocean, exchange is best at upper level
    carbon dioxide

    Deep layer
  101. gases in the sea water
    • 1 nitrogen- from the atm, gas exchange
    • 2 oxygen - from the atm, gas exchange
    • 3 carbon dioxide- from the atm and volcanism
    • 4 arson- atm and valcanism
    • 5 neon- from undersea volcanism
    • 6 helium- from undersea volcanism
  102. the deep ocean comsumed by
    • higher co2 (carbon dioxide)
    • but oxygen higher at upper layers
  103. carbon dioxide leads increase with depth
    • 1 increase water pressure (water pressure can hold more disolved gases)
    • 2 decrease plant activity (algey take out co2, as light levels fall co2 increase.(photothensis)
    • 3 presence of animal life( respire co2 and consume o2 wiht no plants the co2 rises)
  104. what plays a major part of the chemisty of the deep ocean
    single cell organisms
  105. ocean 3 layer structure
    • the surface zone 2% of ocean water
    • the pycnocline -18%
    • the deep zone- 80 % most
  106. these layer mightnot appear in
    polar regions dure to colder temp and icecover
  107. Surface zone
    • minor part
    • the upermost zone
    • temp and salintart are constent
    • connstant mixing due to wind waves and surface curents
    • 1500ft max
  108. for the ice it goes from ice to
    deep zone
  109. the western pacific , w atlantic mainly the gold and caribean and western indian ocean contain warmer water then the eastern counter parts bc
    • surface curerents move warm ewuatoral water into these arreas and
    • the earths rotation piles up the warm water
  110. where is most of of ocean heat located
    western pacific
  111. what is the key temp for hurricans
  112. the central pacific and central atlantic and cnetal indian ocean contail more sallinitic water why
    • isolation from the surrounding surface currents
    • high evaporation rate and low rainfall

    Deeper and colder you go

    calcareous ooze
  113. a transitional zone where density increase sharpley with increasing depth and sightly more dence
  114. what animal can go from zone to zone
  115. how is the pycnocline created
    the rapid decrease in temp with depth
  116. the zone of rapidly changing temp
  117. pycnocline characterstics
    the cold water sinks toward the bottom from the ice in polar reagons.
  118. sudden change of salinity with depth
    halocline 35ppm to 38 ppm
  119. deep zone
    • below the pycnochine
    • depths below 1000m
    • lil change in density wiht increasing depth
  120. circulation in the deep ocean
    • circulation from top to bottom
    • density of sea water is the driving mechanism for deep water circulation
    • density changes with temp and salinity change
  121. cold water tends the sink beneath warmer water higher salinity water sinks below loner salinity water
    thermohaline circulation
  122. there are three types of deep water currents
  123. antarctic bottom water
    • the deepest,densest and coldest int the atlantic.
    • drops from the top to the bottom from the antartic (oxygen from the top drops to bottom)
    • forms at 60degrees south america and flows to the North.
  124. how many years it make toake to cross the equator
    600 to 700 years
  125. north atlantic deep water
    • forms in the artic ocean
    • flows south in deep channels near iceland and greenland
    • temp 33 to 36F
    • water less dense then AABW.
    • most of the water stays in the artic due to bottom top supply
  126. antarctic indermidiate water
    • a warmer mass of water
    • forms souther latitudes
    • found abouve AABW and NADW
    • This is the middle
    • it hits the mid ocean ridge and brings nutrients up
  127. pressure gradient force
    • the driving force of wind
    • goes from high pressure to low pressure
  128. coriolis effect
    the wind curve to the right
  129. high and low pressure blow
    high out to the right and low in to the right
  130. trade wind
    blow from east to west, influences huricans
  131. the prevailing westerlies
    blow from west to east, influences tornatoes
  132. polar easterlies
    blow east to west
  133. low pressure circulating earth equator, moves north in summer and storms can form along this line
    the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
  134. warm salt water form
    clouds so more rainfall and snow then other contiental interiors
  135. reagons where cold ocean water near the coast
    no clouds form bc low humidity so no rain ( Costal deserts)
  136. land is warmer then the sea and land acts like a low pressure
    onshore breeze ( wind water to land)
  137. winds tends to go to
  138. warmer water then land. land is high pressure
    onshore breeze ( wind from land to water)
  139. are seasonal wind patterns
  140. large amounts of rain, india land warmer then the ocean
    summer monsoon
  141. indian land cools and wind from land to ocean, rainy seasons end
    winter monsoon
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