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a statement that satisfies 3 requirements: 1. It is about constructs; 2. it describes causal relations; 3. and it is general in scope, although the range of generality differs for different theories.
Abstract and general concepts that are used in theories and that are not directly observable.
The extent to which the independent and dependent variables used in research correspond to the theoretical constructs under investigation.
a concrete manipulation or measurement of a construct that is thought to influence other constructs.
A concrete measurement of a construct that is thought to be influenced by other constructs.
Social desirability response bias
People's tendency to act in ways that they believe others find acceptable and approve of.
The extent to which it can be concluded that changes in the independent variable actually caused changes in the dependent variable in a research study.
A research design in which both the IV and DV s are measured.
A research design in which researchers ramdomly assign participants to different groups and manipulate one or more IV.
The procedure of assigning participants to dirrerent experimental groups so that every participant has exactly the same chance as every other participant of being in any group.
The extent to which research results can be generalized to other appropriate people, times, and settings.
Cues in a research setting that lead participants to make inferences about what researchers expect or desire and that therefore bias how the participants act.
Condusting new studies in an effort to provide evidence for the same theoretically predicted relations found in prior research.
Consent voluntarily given by an individual who decides to participate in a study after being told what will be involved in participation.
Informing research participants- as soon as possible after the completion of their participation in research- about the purposes, procedures, and scientific value of the study, and discussing any questions participants may have.
1.Are SP more concerned with specific people and events or general principles of social behavior?
SP do not strive merely to understand specific events or specific individuals. they seek instead to discover general principles that explain the behavior of many people in many situations.
2. Name and explain the 3 requirements for a scientific theory?
1. It is a statement about constructs.
2. It describes causal relations.
3. It is general in scope.
3. What 3 kinds of validity must research have to provide useful information about theories?
1. Because theories deal with constructs- abstract concepts-researchers have to be sure the specific observations they make in their studies are in fact relevant to those constructs,
2. Because theories describe causal relations, researchers have to be sure they know the causes of any changes in behavior they find in their studies.
3. Because theories are general in scope, researchers have to be sure they have learned something about how people in general, not just a few individuals think, feel, and act.
4. What are the two parts of construct validity?
1. Independent and Dependent Variables must correspond to the intended construct.
2. IV and DV must not correspond to other constructs.
5. name and explain two methods for ensuring construct validity?
1. Using the best measure for the perpose.
2. Using multiple measures.
6. Define self-reporting measures and identify their strengths and weaknesses.
Asking the person about his thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. Probably the best source of info about beliefs, attitudes, and intentions.Social desirability response bias.
7. Define observational methods and identify their strengths and weakness.
To directly watch and record people's behavior.
Often have good construct validity, particularly when participants are unaware of being observed.
If people know they are being observed you will have a problem with Social Desirability Biases
8. Define performance measures and describe their advantages over self-report and observational measures.
Ask participants to perform some task as well as they can.
Social Desirability tends to be less of a problem
9. On what does the internal validity of research primarily depend?
To provide a valid test of a theory, research must allow observers to conclude that changes in the IV actually caused changes in the dependent variable.
Researh has high internal validity if the researcher can confiedetly conclude that a change in the IV caused a change in the DV.
10. In general, what is the major threat to internal validity?
Factors other than changes in the IV may be present and may be causing the observed changes in the DV .
11. Are nonexperimental designs generally vulnerable to many threats to internal validity?
YES , In a nonexperimental design it is always possible that people who differ on the intended IV may also differ in other unintended ways.
Each alternative explanation for differences in the DV threatens the internal validity of the research.
12. What two aspects of experimental designs are crucial for internal validity?
1. participants are randomly assigned to ex groups ( sometime called conditions )
2. After the random assignment takes place, the IV is manipulated (or intentionally varied ) rather than simply measured.
13. Compare and contrast nonexperimental and experimental designs in terms of (a) internal validity and (b) construct validity. (see table 2.10)
Non: Low, because the lack of random assignment and manipulation means that alternative explanations for results may be possible.
EX: High, because random assignment and manipulation allow alternative causal explanations to be ruled out.
Non: High, if powerful effects of real-life variables- including those that cannot practically or ethically be manipulated- can be studied in their natural contexts.
EX. Low, when pracitcal or ethical constraints render manipulations weak or artificial.
High, when manipulations can adequately vary theoretically important constructs.
Give 3 reasons why researchers may use nonexperimental rather than experimental designs.
1. some important IV like gender, ethnicity, or area of residence, cannot be varied.
2. Ethical reasons
3. other research manipulations cannot be as powerful as the variation in constructs found in everyday life.
In research, what defines the leve lof generalizability for results.
Research has external validity if its results can be assumed to generalize, that is to hold for other types of participants, other times, or other places relevant to the theory.
Name 3 factors that affect generalizability .
1.The representativeness of participants
2. The influences of cultures
3. The research setting
Are findings from research using college student usually biased. generalizeable
Are findings from sesearch using subjests from wester civilization usually biased. Generalizeable
What is the main strength of laboratory research and what are four weakness of laboratory research?
The chief virtue of the lab setting is that experimental designs with high internal validity are most easily imlemented there.
1. Short time span of most studies, a few hours
2. Artificial quality of lab manipulation and measures
3. participants can pay much more attention to the information provided in the lab than they would in someother context.
4. participating my itself elicit special motives.
What is one technique for minimizing or controlling deman characteristics?
1. Team members are prevented from knowing the responses that are expected from an particular participant.
2. Attempt of conceal the true purpose of their research from participants and, in some cases, may even mislead participants about teh purpose.
What are the strengths and weaknesses on nonlaboratory researdh?
Strenghts: can study the long-term effects of such variables as relationship development or piblic health campaigns.
WEAK: Very difficult to carry out experiments outside the lab.
Most field studies are nonex for this reason
Identify 2 keys to ensuring external validity.
1. If the goal is to generalize to some specific target populationand setting, the participants and settings must be representative of the target.
2. If the goal is to generalize across people, places, and times, the best way to do so is to repeat the research in multiple settings and with multiple populations, including people from different cultues.
What are the elements of the most important kind of replications?
The most important replications produce the same results by using different manipulations of the theoretical constructs in studies carried out in different settings with different participant populations.
Do SP say that a theory is proven or that a theory is generally accepted?
Name the 3 steps that can be taken to limit bias in research.
1. Concern for construct validity.
2. Concern for internal validity.
3. Concern for external validity.
What method is used routinely to avoid information about research participants becoming public knowledge?
by keeping participants' responses completely anonymous and unidentifiable.
What method is used to minimize potential harm that might occur as the result of being in research as a participant?
Researchers must now help protect participants against the possibility of harm by telling them they can withdraw from a study without penalty at any time.
What are 2 necessary elements of informed consent?
1. Telling participants they can withdraw from a study without penalty at any time.
2. give any volunteer enough info about about the research to allow the person to make an informed decision about participating.
For what two reasons do researchers use deception in their investigations?
1. When researchers judge teh topic to be highly important
2. When no other alternatives are feasible.
What ethical practice does deception contradict?
informed consent, and honest and fair treatment of others.
What method do researchers use to counteract the negative effects of deception?
What are theh 4 goals of any debriefing?
1. participant can raise ?s and concerns about the research, and the researcher can address them
2. researcher can fully explain any deception
3. researcher and participant can discuss the purpose and methods of the study, thereby enhancing the educational value effects of the research
4. researcher can detect and deal withany poss neg effects of the research
All research must be approved by IRB
Must all research be approved in advance by a Univ Institutional Review Board? IRB