hendrixcardio.txt

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Author:
adamarine
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92980
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hendrixcardio.txt
Updated:
2011-07-04 19:53:27
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cardio
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cardioanatomy
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  1. how much blood does the heart pump per day
    7000L
  2. What are the 2 circuits of the CV
    • systemic
    • pulmonary
  3. which circuit contains arteries & arterioles
    systemic
  4. Which circuit sends oxygenated blood & nutrients to tissues
    systemic
  5. which circuit contains venules & veins
    pulmonary
  6. which circuit sends de-oxygenated blood to the lungs to receive oxygen & unloads CO2
    pulmonary
  7. these arteries supplie the lungs with oxygenated blood that empty into left atrium
    bronchial a
  8. which cavity does the heart lie
    thoracic cavity
  9. where is the posterior border of the heart near
    vertebral column
  10. where is the ant border of the heart near
    sternum
  11. how big is the heart
    14 cm long by 9 cm wide
  12. where does the sup aspect of the heart lie
    inf to 2nd rib
  13. which aspect of the heart is attatched to several large blood vessels
    sup aspect
  14. how does the distal aspect of the heart go
    extends downward to the left ending in the 5th IS=apex
  15. what is the heart & proximal ends of the large vessels enclosed in
    pericardium
  16. This is an inner double layered visceral pericardium that covers the heart
    epicardium
  17. what does the epicardium fold back to become at the base of the heart
    parietal pericardium which forms the inner fibrous pericardium
  18. where does the pericardial cavity lie
    btwn pairetal & visceral layers
  19. what is the importance of the pericardial cavity
    it contains serous fluid that reduces friction btwn the pericardial membranes as the heart beats
  20. what are the 3 layers of the heart wall
    • outer epicardium
    • mid myocardium
    • inner endocardium
  21. how does the epicardium protect the heart
    reduces friction
  22. what does the thick myocardium do
    pumps blood out of the chambers
  23. what does the endocardium contain
    BV's & purkinje fibers
  24. what are the LA & LV separated from the RA & RV by
    septum which is a solid wall like structure
  25. what are the valves btwn the atria & ventricles
    AV valves
  26. which valve is in btwn the LA & LV
    mitral
  27. which valve is in btwn the RA & RV
    tricuspid
  28. what does the RA receive blood from
    • SVC
    • IVC
    • CS
  29. what drains the blood into the RA from the myocardium
    CS
  30. what are the cusps of the tricuspid valve attatched to
    chordae tendineae
  31. where do the chordae tendineae originate from
    pap muscl that project inward from V walls
  32. what is the function of the papillary muscles
    they pull on the chordae tendiane to prevent the cusps from falling back into the atrium
  33. how many pulmonary veins supply the LA w/blood
    4
  34. what is another name for the mitral valve
    bicuspid
  35. how does the mitral valve close
    passisvely & directs blood through the aorta
  36. What is the name of the 3 cusp valve at the base of the aorta
    aortic valve
  37. which valve allows blood to leave the LV during contraction
    aortic
  38. what are the 2 semilunar valves
    • pulmonary
    • aortic
  39. what are the differences in the pulmonary vessels
    • arteries=short, lrg diameter & compliance
    • veins=empty into LA
  40. what happens when the RV contracts
    creates an increase in BP to passively close the tricuspid valve
  41. what does the blood exit through when leaving the RV
    pulmonary trunk which divides into LR pulm arteries to the lungs
  42. which valve does blood leave through when exiting the RV
    pulmonary valve (3 cusp)
  43. what does the RA recieve its deoxygenated blood from
    • VC
    • CS
  44. what happens to the tricuspid valve when the RV contracts
    it closes
  45. what carries oxygenated blood from the lungs into the LA
    pulmonary veins
  46. what happens when the LA contracts
    blood moves from the LA into LV
  47. what are the 1st 2 branches of the aorta
    RLCA
  48. what branches supply the capillaries of the myocardium
    coronary artery branches
  49. what drains blood from the myocaridal capillaries
    branches of cardiac veins which join the CS which empties into RA
  50. Explain briefly what happens with heart functionality
    when the atria contract (atrial systole) the ventricles relax (ventricular diastole) and vise versa then both relax for a brief period which makes up the cardiac cycle
  51. Explain briefly what happens during one cardiac cycle
    one cardiac cyle will cause the pressure in the chambers to rise & fall causing the valves to open & close. when the ventricles contract it pressure rises & when it exceeds PT & aorta pressure the SL valves open causing an ejection of blood & V pressure drops again
  52. what causes the lub-dub sound
    vibrations of the heart tissues related to the valves closing
  53. how does the heart contract
    single unit
  54. what is the functional syncytium
    mass of merging cells that fx as a unit
  55. where is the SA node located
    RA beneath the epicardium
  56. can the Sa node's cells reach threshold on their own
    yes
  57. what initiates impulses through the myorcardium while stimulating contraction of cardiac muscl fibers
    SA node
  58. what is the SA node's rhythmic activity
    70 to 80 per min
  59. The patch of a cardiac impulse travels from the Sa node into what syncytium that causes the atria to contract almost simultaneously
    atrial
  60. The impule passes along the junctional fibers of the conduction system to a mass of specialized tissue known as what
    atrioventricular node=AV node
  61. what provides the only normal conduction pathway btwn the atrial & ventricular syncytia
    AV node
  62. When the cardiac impulse reaches the distal AV node it passes into a lrg AV bundle known as what
    Bundle of His which enters the upper part of the IV septum
  63. what happens nearly halfway down the septum in reference to the bundle of His
    branches spread into enlarged purkinje fibers that extend in to pap musc
  64. what causes the ventricular walls to contract in a twisting motion
    purkinje fibers
  65. what happens when the purkinje fibers stimulate the ventricular walls
    it forces blood into the aorta & pulm trunk
  66. Is the AP's that stimulate CM fiber contraction the same as individual AP
    no
  67. why can electrical changes be detected on the body's surface
    b/c body fluids conduct electrical currents
  68. what does the P wave show
    depolarization of the atrial fibers leading to contraction
  69. what does the QRS complex show
    depolarization of the ventricular fibers prior to ventricular contraction
  70. What does the T wave show
    repolarization of the ventricles
  71. Closure of the mitral & tricuspid valves produce what sound
    S1 or Lub
  72. Closure of the aortic & pulmonary valves produce what sound
    S2 or Dub
  73. what detects changes in BP
    baroreceptors
  74. how are the effects of the sympathetic & parasympathetic fibers balanced
    barorecptor reflex
  75. what are the most important ions that influence heart action
    • K
    • Ca
  76. how does hyperkalemia effect the heart
    it decreases contraction rates & forces
  77. how does hypokalemia effect the heart
    it may cause abnormal heart rhythms=arrhythmia
  78. how does hypercalcemia effect the heart
    it will cause the heart to contract for an abnormally long time
  79. how does hypoclacemia effect the heart
    depresses heart action
  80. what are the 5 general classes of BV's
    • arteries
    • arterioles
    • capillaries
    • venules
    • veins
  81. Elastic vessels that are very strong that carry blood away from heart under high pressure
    arteries
  82. what do arteries subdivide into
    arterioles
  83. what are the 3 layers of the arterial wall
    • tunica interna=inner
    • tunica media=mid
    • tunical externa=outer
  84. Explain the flow of blood vessel anatomy from the heart and back to the heart
    • Elastic arteries
    • muscular arteries & arterioles
    • Cappillaries
    • venules & med veins
    • Large veins
    • Heart
  85. What is it when the fibers receive impulses to contract & reduce BV diameter
    vasoconstriction
  86. What is it when inhibited, the muscle fibers relax & the vessels diamter increases
    vasodilation
  87. what are the smallest diamter BV's
    capillaries
  88. how are the walls of the capillaries
    they have thin slits which affects permeability
  89. what happens to BP as the distance from the LV increases
    the pressure decreases b/c of peripheral resistance btwn blood & vessel walls & is lowest in the caps
  90. what is exchanged btwn capillaries & the tissue fluid surrounding the cells
    • gases
    • metabolic byproducts
    • nutrients
  91. What do capillary walls allow diffusion of blood with
    high levels of oxygen & nutrients
  92. where is BP the strongest
    when it leaves the heart
  93. what links caps to veins
    venules
  94. how are vein walls
    similiar to arteries but poor middle layers
  95. what do veins have that project inward
    flap like valves
  96. what acts as reservoirs for blood during arterial hemorrhage
    veins
  97. The force that blood exerts against the inner walls of BV's
    BP
  98. What does BP most commonly refer to
    pressure in the arteries supplied by aortic branches
  99. how does arterial blood pressure rise & fall
    according to cardiac cycle phases
  100. what is the max pressure during ventricular contraction termed
    systolic pr
  101. what is the lowest pressure that remains in the arteries b4 next V contraction
    diastolic pr
  102. the vol of blood discharged from the ventricle w/each contraction
    SV
  103. What is the avg SV in an adult
    70ml
  104. how is the cardiac output defined
    vol discharged from ventricle per min
  105. CO=SV*HR
    cardiac output
  106. what is it when the artery walls are distended as blood surges into them from the ventricles but recoil immediately
    pulse
  107. what is the sum of formed elements
    Bl Vol
  108. how does BL Vol vary
    • age
    • size
    • gender
  109. What is the avg blood vol
    5L or 8%BW
  110. what is the friction btwn blood & blood vessel walls that produces a force
    peripheral resistance
  111. Factors that alter peripheral resistance change what
    BP
  112. What is the ease with which a fluid's molecules flow past one another
    viscosity
  113. T/F the greater the resistance, the more force that is needed to move the blood
    T
  114. What is the formula for blood pressure control
    BP=CO*PR
  115. what controls BP
    peripheral resistance
  116. Which center of the medulla controls peripheral resistance
    vasomotor center
  117. what is the largest diameter artery in the body
    aorta
  118. how does the aorta extend
    sup from the LV to arch over the heart to the left then it descends ant to the left of the vertebral col
  119. What is the 1st part of the aorta
    ascending that begins at the aortic valve of LV
  120. What connects the ascending aorta with the descending aorta
    aortic arch
  121. What are the 3 arteries that originate along the aortic arch
    • brachiocephalic trunk
    • LCC
    • L subclavian
  122. which branch of the aorta supplies the heart
    ascending
  123. Which branch of the aorta supplies the upper limbs & head
    arch
  124. which branch of the aorta supplies the bronchi, pericardium esophagus, mediastinum & thoracic wall
    thoracic
  125. Where does the abdominal aorta supply blood to
    • upper digestive tract organs
    • diaphragm
    • intestines
    • adrenal glands
    • kidneys
    • sex organs
    • abd walls
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
    • pelvic organs
    • lower limbs
  126. where does the thoracic aorta supply blood to
    • bronchi
    • pericardium
    • esophagus
    • mediastinum
    • thoracic wall
  127. which branch of the aorta begins immediately inferior to the diaphragm
    abd aorta & its a contintuation of the thoracic aorta
  128. What are the unpaired branches in the abdomen include
    • celiac trunk
    • sup & inf mesenteric arteries
  129. Which trunk supplies blood to the liver, stomach & spleen
    celiac trunk
  130. what runs superiorly through the cervical vertebrae into the skull & supplies blood to the vertebrae,ligaments & muscles
    vertebral arteries
  131. What do the post cerebral arteries help to form
    • cerebral arterial circle=circle of willis
    • that connects the vertebral artery & int carotid artery systems
  132. What do the thyrocervical arteries give off branches to
    • thyroid
    • parathyroid
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • esophagus
    • pharynx
    • neck, shoulder & back musc
  133. what are near the bases of the carotid arteries that help to control BP
    carotid sinuses that contain barorecptors to control BP
  134. The veins from all parts of the body converge into the sup & inf vena cava leading to the RA except where
    • lungs
    • heart
  135. What do the external jugular veins empty into
    R/L subclavian veins
  136. What are the upper limbs & shoulders drained by
    deep & superficial veins
  137. What does the vasilic vein ascend to join
    brachial vein which merges to form the axillary vein
  138. Most of the veins carry blood directly to the heart's atria except for what
    veins that drain the abd viscera
  139. What organs are drained to carry blood through the hepatic portal vein to the liver
    • stomach
    • intestines
    • pancreas
    • spleen
  140. What is the name of the pathway that drains the abdominal viscera
    hepatic portal system
  141. What are some of the effects of aging on the cardiovascular system
    • reduced max output
    • changes to the nodal & conducting cells
    • reduced elasticity
    • atheroscelrosis
    • damaged tissue
  142. What are some of the effects of atherosclerosis
    • aneurysm
    • stroke
    • MI
    • hemorrhaging
    • thrombi formation

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