Class test mod4

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Class test mod4
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  1. What are the joints of LUSCHKA?
    • articulations found in the lower 5 cervical intervertebral joints

    • they are synovial joints formed by the base of the vertebral body and

    • the uncinate processes that project superiorly from the vertebral body below it. When the C-spine flexes, laterally bends and

    • rotates, these joints become axes of rotation. They allow for flexion/extension
    • and limit lateral flexion in the cervical spine
  2. Why is the sacrum known as the “keystone”
    of the pelvic girdle?

    absorbing the forces and allowing the arches to bear wt.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has 3 basic
    functions:

    • 1) mechanical protection

    • 2)homeostatic function

    • 3)circulation
  4. What is the primary motion of the
    thoracic spine?

    • Rotation

    • because of the increased vertical angle of their articular processes and the limited motion imposed by the ribcage.

  5. During _____________
    the diaphragm contracts and flattens and the chest cavity __________

    • inhalation
    • expands
  6. The sympathetic nervous system helps manage stress and requirements of the environment. What systems and viscera in the body does it have control over and give an example of what happens to each these systems and
    viscera.

    • Neurological triggers cause changes within the viscera in preparation for the body for the“fight or flight” response.
  7. Where do lymph nodes join to form lymph trunks and what areas do they drain?

    • Johnny Should Believe In Lust

    • Jugular:head and neck

    • Subclavian – upper limbs;

    • Bronchomediastinal– thoracic wall, lung and heart;

    • Intestinal – stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleenand part of the liver;

    • Lumbar – lower limbs, wall and viscera of the pelvis, kidneys, adrenal glands and abdominal wall;

  8. What are the boundaries of the Ischiorectal Fossa?

    • Pelvic Diaphram- superiorily

    • Skin inferiorly- (perineum)

    • Perianal membrane – anterior

    • Gluteus maximu and scacrotuberous

    • ligament - posterior
  9. What are the consequences that could occur with an imbalance of the pelvic diaphragm?

    • incontinence of urine and feces,

    • infertility,

    • erectile dysfunction,

    • organ prolapse,

    • pelvic and local viscera inflammation,

    • constipation,

    • perineal hernia,

    • localized and sympathetic pain, etc.

  10. What are the structures that pass through the thoracic inlet?

    • Nerves – Phrenic C3, 4, 5,

    • Vagus nerve Cranial nerve X,

    • Recurrent laryngeal nerves,

    • Sympathetic trunks;
    • Arteries

    • – Left and Right Common Carotid Arteries, Right and Left Subclavian arteries;
    • Veins

    • – Subclavian vein, Internal jugular vein, External jugular vein, Brachiocephalic
    • vein, Superior Vena Cava;
    • Lymphatic

    • – Thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct and Right lymphatic duct),
    • Bronchomediastinal trunk, Lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels; Trachea;
    • Esophagus;

    • Apex of the lung

  11. Name 2 muscles on tension during leg rotations at the point when the knee is laterally rotated or abducted.

    • Adductor longus

    • Adductor Brevis

    • Adductor Magnus

  12. What are the borders of the Femoral Triangle?

    • superiorly-inguinal ligament,

    • medially-adductor longus muscle,

    • laterally-sartorius muscle

  13. Which 4 muscles make up the rotator cuff
    group? (SITS)

    • supraspinatous,

    • infraspinatous,

    • teres minor,

    • subscapularis

  14. Four joints being articulated during the 3 cardinal arm movements.
    • sternoclavicular,

    • glenohumeral,

    • acromioclavicular,

    • sternocostal joints 1,2,3,

    • vertebrocostal joints of ribs 1,2,3,4

  15. ____of the side bending and rotation of the cervical spine happens between ___ and _C7_____, while the remaining _____% of side bending and rotation of the cervical spine happens between _____ and ____.

    • 50 % C3-7
    • 50% - C1-2
  16. The dens, also known as the ______________ process, creates a pivot on which the _______ rotates around the ____.

    • Ondontoid
    • Atlas
    • Axis
  17. During inhalation the ___ hiatus opens due to an increase in pressure of the abdominal cavity, increasing ______ return through the inferior vena cava to the heart

    • Cavul Hiatus
    • Venous
  18. The femoral triangle is bordered superiorly by the inguinal ligament, medially by the adductor longus muscle, and laterally by the sartorius muscle.

    List the vessels that pass through the femoral triangle:

    • femoral nerve and its branches,

    • femoral artery (and several but not all of its branches),

    • femoral vein (and its proximal tributaries deepfemoral and great saphenous veins), and
    • deep inguinal lymph nodes.

  19. The ________ganglion articulates with the first rib and the _______ arteries lie anteriorly to it.

    • Stella Ganglion
    • Vertebral Arteries
  20. The thoracic lymph nodes that are responsible for collecting lymph from the diaphragm, lower esophagus, lungs and liver are referred to as:

    superior phrenic lymph nodes.
  21. The __________carries sensory information from parts of the lungs and the pericardium of the heart, as well as, motor impulses to the diaphragm muscle

    Phrenic Nerve C3-C5
  22. The __________is the main parasympathetic nerve of the body and it passes down the neck and through the thoracic inlet to the abdomen.

    Vagus Nerve
  23. The rotator cuff muscles (known as the SITS muscle group) stabilize the _______to the __________to permit arm movement. The large extrinsic shoulder muscles do not function properly if the “SITS” muscles lose their _________.

    • Humeral Head
    • Genoid fossa
    • stablity
  24. Gibsons facia surrounds _____________ muscles and___________

    • Pectorial muscles
    • Apex of the lung
  25. Kegal exercises help tone the ___________

    Ischiocavernosus Muscle
  26. _________and_________ bones are helpful landmarks that correspond to the level of C3

    • Mandible
    • Hyoid
  27. A motion that repeats itself in regular cycle

    • Oscillation
  28. ___________and _____________ are mechanisms that help move lymph.

    • Mechanical contraction
    • Respiration
  29. The femoral triangle is bordered superiorly by the ________, medially by the _________muscle and laterally by the _________ muscle
    • Inguinal ligament
    • Adductor Longus Muscle
    • Sartorius Muscle
  30. The diaphragm is flattened during __________ and dome shaped during ___________.

    • Inhalation
    • exhalation
  31. The sacrum absorbs ___________and allows the arches of the pelvic girdle to ___________

    • force
    • bear weight
  32. The absence of ______ makes the spinal veins unique from any other veins in the body.

    Valves
  33. The ____________accounts for 50%
    rotation of the head on a transverse plane about a vertical axis.

    Atlanto-axial joint
  34. What is the definition of oscillation?

    It is a motion that repeats itself in a regular cycle
  35. The neck is divided into anterior and
    posterior by what muscle?

    sternocleidomastoid
  36. How many lymphatic ducts and trunks are
    there and what are they called?

    Johnny Should Believe In Lust

    • 2 ducts- thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct

    • 5 trunks jugular, subclavian,intestinal, bronchomediastinal, lumbar

  37. What are the actions of bulbospongiosus?

    • Helps expel urine,

    • aids in propelling semen along urethra,

    • assists in erection of the penis and clitoris and

    • constricts vaginal orifice
  38. What structure is considered the beginning opening of the thoracic lymphatic duct?

    the cisterna chyli
  39. What are the main functions of the lymphatic system?

    • drains excess interstitial fluid and returns it to the blood transports lipid soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and lipids from the GI tract

    • helps to defend the body against disease causing agents.

  40. What three major joints are articulated during myo-articulation of the shoulder?

    • Gleno-humeral joint,

    • acromio-clavicular joint,

    • sterno-clavicularjoint.

  41. What is the main parasympathetic nerve of
    the body originating from the
    medulla oblongata and what are it’s roots?

    Vagus Nerve, CNX
  42. What major arteries are affected by myo-articulation of the leg in supine position?


    Common Iliac artery,

    internal iliac artery,

    external iliac artery

    femoral artery

    • and popliteal arteries.
  43. Explain how Wernham's polygon applies to OSD?

    • Polygons of Force: a collection of lines which represent the direction of forces throughout the body formed into a polygonal organization ";

    • T & COG lines

  44. Explain why a woman cannot orgasm? How would you assess and treat such a case?

    • compression of S2-4 nerves of vulva: pudendal
    • ilioinguinal, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve dysfunction;
    • internal pudendal artery compression arising from femoral artery circulatory issues;
    • and the list goes on and on...lol
    • femoral and inguinal lymph nodes drainage
    • issues from vulva; ovarian steroid issue of the membrane causing SH/LHestrogen/progesterone imbalance from lipid issues in lymph; adventitia shearing from the pubocervical fascia and urogenital diaphragm following childbirth??
    • SeFT, Supine, Sacral assessment, prone leg rotation and sacrum oscillation
  45. Why is myoarticulation treatment performed in supine and prone positions only?

    • an upright patient position increases CSF flow to the cranium because of the valveless veins;

    • temporarily disable passage of toxic blood through the sphenoidal foramen

  46. Prone leg rotation assists drainage of which important clinical landmark?

    Ishiorectal fossa
  47. During OSD if the chin line is anterior what happens within the polygon? Posterior?

    • anterior:

    • Increased pressure on the diaphragm

    • anterior torsion of L1-2 tension on

    • inguinal ligaments
    • increased cervical lordosis

    • increased tension at T11/T12 causing

    • exaggeration of alternating Zink patterns
    • knee will protrude posteriorly applying

    • pressure to tibial menisci
    • nutated sacrum likely nutated sphenoid

    • and sinuses meaning nasal circulation issues
    • posterior:

    • abdominal pressure posterior onto

    • posterior portion of intestines aorta and iliac vessels
    • anterior cervical ligaments stretched

    • while posterior ligaments contracted
    • rhomboid contraction from reduced

    • thoracic kyphosis
    • increased chance of inhaled ribs dues to

    • flattened thoracic cage exertions on QL and PSOAS
    • increased lumbar lordosis

    • Increased pressure on SI joints

    • knees will protrude posteriorly

    • increased tension on sciatic nerve as leg

    • extensors are on increased tension
    • Increased tension on deltoid ligament and

    • achilles tendon as most of weight is borne on talus
  48. The ________ plexus runs under the clavicle and over the first rib. It’s roots are ___________.

    • Brachial Plexus
    • C5,C6,C7,C8 & T1
  49. The cardinal arm movements liberate the ___________, the __________, the _________and __________, by lifting the _______ off of the first rib.

    • Brachial Plexus
    • Subclavian Artery
    • Subclavian Vein
    • Subclavian Lympathic trunk
    • Clavical
  50. The ___________ is a bundle of nerve fibres that runs from the base of the skull to the coccyx.
    It provides communication between the spinal nerves and is a fundamental part
    of the ___________ division of the _______ nervous system.
    • sympathetic trunk
    • Sympathetic
    • Autonomic
  51. Apertures of the Respiratory Diaphragm are CC Hiatus

    • Caval Hiatus,

    • Sternocostal Hiatus,

    • Esophageal Hiatus,

    • Aorta Hiatus

  52. Unequal tension in the ______________ can draw the ___________ tendon off center altering the size, shape and position of the openings that run through this important muscle.

    • Diaphragm
    • Central
  53. The _____________ articulates with the first rib.

    Stellate Ganglion
  54. The ______________ is superficial to the
    pelvic diaphragm.

    Urogenital Diaphragm
  55. The ___________and ___________ pass through the Caval hiatus of the diaphragm.

    • Inferior Vena Cava
    • Right Phrenic Nerve C3-C5
  56. The ______________is released during prone leg rotation
    Ischiorectal Fossa
  57. The ____________is within the cerebrum and is also known as the ‘emotional brain.’
    Limbic System
  58. OSD Leg rotation:
    What is the Fulcrum, Load and Effort?
    • The SI joint hand placement is our fulcrum
    • and our lever (load) is the femur
    • and the effort is from the operator.
  59. The supine treatment of the thoracic polygonal base is referred to as
    the ______________movements.

    Three Cardinal Arm
  60. The following joints (4) are found in the pelvis:

    • lumbosacral,

    • sacroiliac,

    • sacrococcygeal,

    • and pubic symphysis.

  61. The peripheral nervous system is divided into
    the ___________, ________ and ________nervous systems
    • Autonomic
    • Somatic
    • Entric
  62. What is the strongest ligament in the body?

    Iliofemoral
  63. Distal and proximal ends of the clavicle are termed protraction and retraction occurring along
    the SC joint’s __________ axis

    Longitudinal
  64. The subclavian lymphatic trunks drain the upper limbs into the



    • Right lymphatic duct on the right
    • Thoracic duct on the left
  65. The act of circumduction of the forearm produces a pumping action on the nerves, arteries, veins and lymphatics of the region. As the forearm is ____________ it forces all the fluid into the thoracic cavity and as the forearm is brought into _______ it draws fluid into the arm and forearm.

    • Flexed
    • Extension
  66. How does leg rotation influence blood flow through the entire body?

    The leg acts as a holding reservoir of fluid when in a static position. With the leg rotation movement, it

    creates a (dynamic) pump effect to increase fluid pressure allowing blood (arterial and venous) and lymph to be circulated systemically
  67. During the 2nd cardinal movement in supine myoarticulation of the shoulder, what plane and axisis the humerus in?

    What is this movement doing to the spine?

    • The humerus is moving inferiorly in the coronal plane on a transverse axis

    • The movement creates side-bending in the spine.

  68. What is the name of the lymph node that is the converging point of lymph vessels from the head and neck?

    Jugulo-omohyoid node
  69. What is the function of the transverse ligament of the atlas?

    • It encloses the Dens of the C2

    • and is lined with a synovial membrane that provideslubrication as the atlas rotates around the Dens of the axis.

  70. Name the 4 nerves that pass through the thoracic inlet.


    • Phrenic nerve: C3-5
    • Vagus Nerve : CNX
    • Laryngeal Nerve
    • Sympathic Trucks
  71. Nutation of thesacrum causes the apex of the sacrum to move _________ resulting in _______ of the lumbar spine.

    • Posteriorly
    • Lordosis
  72. The femoral artery descends along the middle of the anterior thigh and crosses overto the posterior thigh.

    What is the artery called before it is the femoral artery, and what does it turn into?

    • External Iliac Artery
    • Femoral Artery
    • Popliteal Artery
  73. Name 4 nerves from the lumbosacral plexus and their roots.

  74. What are the 5 lymph trunks?

    Johnny should believe in lust

    • Jugular

    • Subclavian

    • Bronchomediastinal

    • Intestinal

    • Lumbar

  75. Name the 4 structures that travel between the thorax and abdomen that pass through
    the diaphragm. CC Hiatus

    • Caval Hiatus
    • Sternocostal Hiatus
    • Esophageal Hiatus
    • Aorta Hiatus

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