Chapter 6: Part 4
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1. Another name for osteogenesis is ______________.
What are the three stages of osteogenesis?
- Bone formation
- Postnatal bone growth
- Bone remodeling and repair
When does bone formation occur?
begins in the 2nd month of development
When does postnatal bone growth occur?
until early adulthood
When does bone remodeling and repair occur?
What are the two types of ossification?
Membrane bone develops from fibrous membrane in _______________ ossification.
Intramembranous ossification forms _____ ________.
Examples of flat bone include what?
clavicles and cranial bones
Cartliage bone forms by replacing hyaline cartliage in ______________ ossification.
Endochondral ossification forms what?
most of the rest of the skeleton
Endochondral ossification uses _________ _________ models.
Endochondral ossification recquires hyaline cartliage prior to ___________.
Interstitial growth takes place __________ the bone.
_______________ growth increases length of of long bone.
________________ growth increases thickness and remodeling of all bones by osteoblasts and osteoclasts one bone surface.
What are the 4 functional zones that epiphyseal plate cartliage organize into?
- Proliferation (growth)
- Ossification (osteogenic)
What stimulates epiphyseal plate activity?
What hormone modulates activity or growth hormone?
What hormones are released at puberty?
testosterone and estrogen
Testosterone and estrogen promotes what?
adolescent growth spurts
End growth by inducing __________ _________ __________.
epiphysial plate growth
__________ ___________ occurs where bone is injured or added strength is needed.
Bone deposit recquires a diet rich in what?
- vitamins C, D, and A
In bone resorption, osteoclasts secrete __________ _________ and __________.
lysomal enzymes & acids
What digest organic matrix?
_______ convert calcium salts into soluble forms.
Dissolved matrix is transcytosed across ____________, enters ___________ fluid and then ___________.
osteoclast, interstital, blood
What controls continual remodeling of bone?
Hormonal mechanisms that maintain calcium homeostasis in the blood, mechanical & gravitational forces
__________ is necessary for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood coagulation, secretion by glands and nerve cells, and cell division.
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