Chapter 6: Part 4

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Anonymous
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Chapter 6: Part 4
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2011-07-04 22:48:27
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Part 4: Bones and Skeletal Tissues
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  1. 1. Another name for osteogenesis is ______________.
    ossification
  2. What are the three stages of osteogenesis?
    • Bone formation
    • Postnatal bone growth
    • Bone remodeling and repair
  3. When does bone formation occur?
    begins in the 2nd month of development
  4. When does postnatal bone growth occur?
    until early adulthood
  5. When does bone remodeling and repair occur?
    lifelong
  6. What are the two types of ossification?
    • Intramembranous
    • Endochondral
  7. Membrane bone develops from fibrous membrane in _______________ ossification.
    Intramembranous
  8. Intramembranous ossification forms _____ ________.
    flat bone
  9. Examples of flat bone include what?
    clavicles and cranial bones
  10. Cartliage bone forms by replacing hyaline cartliage in ______________ ossification.
    Endochondral
  11. Endochondral ossification forms what?
    most of the rest of the skeleton
  12. Endochondral ossification uses _________ _________ models.
    hyaline cartliage
  13. Endochondral ossification recquires hyaline cartliage prior to ___________.
    ossification
  14. Interstitial growth takes place __________ the bone.
    inside
  15. _______________ growth increases length of of long bone.
    Interstitial
  16. ________________ growth increases thickness and remodeling of all bones by osteoblasts and osteoclasts one bone surface.
    Appositional
  17. What are the 4 functional zones that epiphyseal plate cartliage organize into?
    • Proliferation (growth)
    • Hypertrophic
    • Calcification
    • Ossification (osteogenic)
  18. What stimulates epiphyseal plate activity?
    growth hormones
  19. What hormone modulates activity or growth hormone?
    thyroid
  20. What hormones are released at puberty?
    testosterone and estrogen
  21. Testosterone and estrogen promotes what?
    adolescent growth spurts
  22. End growth by inducing __________ _________ __________.
    epiphysial plate growth
  23. __________ ___________ occurs where bone is injured or added strength is needed.
    bone deposit
  24. Bone deposit recquires a diet rich in what?
    • protein
    • vitamins C, D, and A
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
    • magnesium
    • manganese
  25. In bone resorption, osteoclasts secrete __________ _________ and __________.
    lysomal enzymes & acids
  26. What digest organic matrix?
    Lysomal enzymes
  27. _______ convert calcium salts into soluble forms.
    acids
  28. Dissolved matrix is transcytosed across ____________, enters ___________ fluid and then ___________.
    osteoclast, interstital, blood
  29. What controls continual remodeling of bone?
    Hormonal mechanisms that maintain calcium homeostasis in the blood, mechanical & gravitational forces
  30. __________ is necessary for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, blood coagulation, secretion by glands and nerve cells, and cell division.
    Calcium

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