Biomech II #1.txt

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kepling
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93052
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Biomech II #1.txt
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2011-07-05 21:24:35
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Biomech II
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Biomech II #1
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  1. What qualifies as a LLD?
    >1cm diff
  2. What is RCSP difference that will lead to LLD?
    >3 degrees
  3. What is latrogenic?
    shoe gear, orthoses
  4. What is gold standard for measuring LLD?
    multiple view x-rays
  5. What size pads do you use for WB measurements?
    2mm
  6. What is a pad limit b/f utilizing permanent shoe modifications?
    10mm (=1cm)
  7. Does the shorter limb of LLD sup or pron?
    Supinate
  8. T/F It is better to lengthen than shorten a limb?
    F, better to shorten than lengthen
  9. What type of hip problem exists if there is not discrepancy b/t knee flexed/extended?
    Osseus
  10. Avg head-to-neck angle of femur?
    125-130
  11. Femoral condyle developmental angle changes?
    • Birth = 30-35
    • 1 yr = 25-30
    • 5 yr = 20-25
    • 15 yr = 10-15
  12. How is the hip range of motion for a 3 yr. old?
    internal and external ROM are equal
  13. What does a hip flexed ROM test measure?
    Hip rotation in swing phase
  14. What does a hip extended ROM test measure?
    Hip rotation in Stance phase
  15. Normal internal hip ROM?
    35-50 degrees
  16. Normal external hip ROM?
    25-40
  17. In gait, when is the hip internally rotated?
    Heel contact and toe lift off same foot
  18. In gain, when is the hip externally rotated?
    opp toe off to same toe lift off
  19. Body weight increases on hip upon heel strike and STJ supination?
    • heel strike: 4x body weight
    • STJ Supination: 7x body weight
  20. Hip flexor mm
    • Iliacus
    • psoas major/minor
  21. Hip flexors function?
    • Flex hip
    • accelerate external motion
  22. Hip extensors
    • Hamstrings
    • Gluteus maximus
  23. Hip extensor functions?
    extend hip
  24. Hip adductors
    • Adductor magnus, longus and brevis
    • Gracilus
    • pectineus
  25. Hid adductor functions?
    • adduction
    • flexion
    • external rotation
  26. Hip abductors
    Gluteus minimus, medius, IT Band
  27. Hip abductor functions?
    • abduct
    • external rotation
  28. Internal rotators
    adductors' 2nd function
  29. Normal vertical displacement of body during gait?
    5cm (2 in)
  30. Stride
    distance b/t heel contact of one foot to heel contact of same foot
  31. Step
    heel contact of one foot to heel contact of the opposite foot
  32. Normal base of gait?
    3.5 inches
  33. Normal angle of gait?
    12-15 degrees
  34. What muscle controls supination and slow pronation?
    Tibialis posterior
  35. What mm decelerates the tibia?
    Soleus
  36. What mm provide knee extension?
    Gastroc & Soleus
  37. What mm smooth out supination?
    FB and FL
  38. What mm compress the tarsus posteriorly?
    FL and PT
  39. What mm stabilizes the 1st met against the tarsus?
    PL
  40. T/F the toes bear weight during contact and midstance
    F, they do not bear weight during contact or midstance
  41. What mm assist ankle dorsiflexion?
    EDL, EHL and TA
  42. What mm mainly cause STJ pronation?
    FDL
  43. What 3 x-ray angle measurements do not change with sup/pro?
    • Met adductus
    • Digital abductus
    • Calcaneal inclination
  44. If Tibial Varum is >5 degrees, what must happen to get foot on ground?
    Pronation
  45. Most common cause of intoeing?
    Internal tibial torsion
  46. Normal M/F Q-angles?
    • M: 0-15
    • F: 0-20
  47. What is a deformity caused by a large Q-angle?
    genu valgum (w/ coxa varum)
  48. Knee Flexion - CKC movement?
    Slide anterior / roll posterior
  49. Knee extension - CKC movement?
    slide posterior / roll anterior
  50. During knee extension, what pulls knee anteriorly?
    PCL
  51. During knee flexion, what pulls knee posteriorly?
    ACL
  52. Tibia and femur movements during extension screw home mechanism?
    • Tibia: external rotation
    • Femur: internal rotation
  53. Tibia and femur movements during flexion of screw home mechanism?
    • Tibia: internal rotation
    • Femur: external rotation
  54. What is the Helfet Test?
    • To test screw home mechanis
    • * flex knee, draw line in patella and tuberosity then extend. If correct, tuberosity will be lateral to patella
  55. Equinus compensation
    • STJ pronation
    • MTJ pronation
    • smaller stride
    • abducted gait
    • genu recurvatum
    • early heel lift
  56. Longitudinal MTJ axis degrees
    • 8 degrees sagittal
    • 15 degrees Transverse
  57. Oblique axis MTJ degrees
    • 52 Transverse
    • 57 Sagittal
  58. Which is more common, superior or medial OAMTJ deviations?
    Superior
  59. Which is harder to help with orthotics, superior or medial deviations of MTJ?
    Superior
  60. Name the five common shoe modifications
    • rocker bottom
    • heel lift
    • met bars
    • flares
    • buttress/stabilizers
  61. When do you use a heel lift?
    LLD > 1cm (or 10mm)
  62. What is the goal of a rocker bottom foot?
    • Allow patient to get over the foot
    • unload forefoot or heel
  63. What is the function of shoe flares?
    support medial and/or lateral heel movement
  64. What is the diff b/t a flare and a buttress (stabilizer)?
    A buttress goes up into the shoe while a flare goes out from the sole
  65. What are the four purposes of AFOs?
    • 1) support
    • 2) alignment
    • 3) limit motion (pain control)
    • 4) sub for inadequate muscle control
  66. What is the diff b/t a Static AFO and a Dynamic AFO?
    • Static: limits AJ motion
    • Dynamic: allows AJ motion (sagittal)
  67. Diff b/t custom made and customized?
    • Custom made: molded
    • customized: fit to customer

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