Biomech II #1.txt
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What qualifies as a LLD?
What is RCSP difference that will lead to LLD?
What is latrogenic?
shoe gear, orthoses
What is gold standard for measuring LLD?
multiple view x-rays
What size pads do you use for WB measurements?
What is a pad limit b/f utilizing permanent shoe modifications?
Does the shorter limb of LLD sup or pron?
T/F It is better to lengthen than shorten a limb?
F, better to shorten than lengthen
What type of hip problem exists if there is not discrepancy b/t knee flexed/extended?
Avg head-to-neck angle of femur?
Femoral condyle developmental angle changes?
- Birth = 30-35
- 1 yr = 25-30
- 5 yr = 20-25
- 15 yr = 10-15
How is the hip range of motion for a 3 yr. old?
internal and external ROM are equal
What does a hip flexed ROM test measure?
Hip rotation in swing phase
What does a hip extended ROM test measure?
Hip rotation in Stance phase
Normal internal hip ROM?
Normal external hip ROM?
In gait, when is the hip internally rotated?
Heel contact and toe lift off same foot
In gain, when is the hip externally rotated?
opp toe off to same toe lift off
Body weight increases on hip upon heel strike and STJ supination?
- heel strike: 4x body weight
- STJ Supination: 7x body weight
Hip flexors function?
- Flex hip
- accelerate external motion
- Gluteus maximus
Hip extensor functions?
- Adductor magnus, longus and brevis
Hid adductor functions?
- external rotation
Gluteus minimus, medius, IT Band
adductors' 2nd function
Normal vertical displacement of body during gait?
5cm (2 in)
distance b/t heel contact of one foot to heel contact of same foot
heel contact of one foot to heel contact of the opposite foot
Normal base of gait?
Normal angle of gait?
What muscle controls supination and slow pronation?
What mm decelerates the tibia?
What mm provide knee extension?
Gastroc & Soleus
What mm smooth out supination?
FB and FL
What mm compress the tarsus posteriorly?
FL and PT
What mm stabilizes the 1st met against the tarsus?
T/F the toes bear weight during contact and midstance
F, they do not bear weight during contact or midstance
What mm assist ankle dorsiflexion?
EDL, EHL and TA
What mm mainly cause STJ pronation?
What 3 x-ray angle measurements do not change with sup/pro?
- Met adductus
- Digital abductus
- Calcaneal inclination
If Tibial Varum is >5 degrees, what must happen to get foot on ground?
Most common cause of intoeing?
Internal tibial torsion
What is a deformity caused by a large Q-angle?
genu valgum (w/ coxa varum)
Knee Flexion - CKC movement?
Slide anterior / roll posterior
Knee extension - CKC movement?
slide posterior / roll anterior
During knee extension, what pulls knee anteriorly?
During knee flexion, what pulls knee posteriorly?
Tibia and femur movements during extension screw home mechanism?
- Tibia: external rotation
- Femur: internal rotation
Tibia and femur movements during flexion of screw home mechanism?
- Tibia: internal rotation
- Femur: external rotation
What is the Helfet Test?
- To test screw home mechanis
- * flex knee, draw line in patella and tuberosity then extend. If correct, tuberosity will be lateral to patella
- STJ pronation
- MTJ pronation
- smaller stride
- abducted gait
- genu recurvatum
- early heel lift
Longitudinal MTJ axis degrees
- 8 degrees sagittal
- 15 degrees Transverse
Which is more common, superior or medial OAMTJ deviations?
Which is harder to help with orthotics, superior or medial deviations of MTJ?
Name the five common shoe modifications
- rocker bottom
- heel lift
- met bars
When do you use a heel lift?
LLD > 1cm (or 10mm)
What is the goal of a rocker bottom foot?
- Allow patient to get over the foot
- unload forefoot or heel
What is the function of shoe flares?
support medial and/or lateral heel movement
What is the diff b/t a flare and a buttress (stabilizer)?
A buttress goes up into the shoe while a flare goes out from the sole
What are the four purposes of AFOs?
- 1) support
- 2) alignment
- 3) limit motion (pain control)
- 4) sub for inadequate muscle control
What is the diff b/t a Static AFO and a Dynamic AFO?
- Static: limits AJ motion
- Dynamic: allows AJ motion (sagittal)
Diff b/t custom made and customized?
- Custom made: molded
- customized: fit to customer
What would you like to do?
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