Cell Membrane and Transport

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Geoff
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93085
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Cell Membrane and Transport
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2011-07-26 20:58:28
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BIOL Cell Membrane Transport
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Study cards for Chapter Seven "Cell Membrane and Transport" BIOL 189 CSN
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  1. ICF is an anacronym for:
    intracellular fluid
  2. Fluid outside of the cell membrane is known as:
    extracellular fluid
  3. What are the four functions of the cell membrane?
    • Physical isolation of cell
    • Regulate exchange
    • Monitor the environment
    • Structural support
  4. Physical isolation provided by the cell membrane helps to maintain seperate:
    environments
  5. Cell membranes keep the _______ and ________ physically isolated.
    intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid
  6. True or False: The cell membrane controls the amount of exchange between the ICF and ECF.
    True
  7. The primary environment of cells is the:
    extracellular fluid
  8. What does amphipathic mean?
    having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
  9. When a phospholipid has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions is can be classified as:
    amphipathic
  10. Which region of the phospholipid minimizes and regulates exchange, hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
    hydrophobic
  11. Are the phospholipid heads polar or non-polar?
    polar
  12. Are phospholipid fatty acid tails polar or non-polar?
    non-polar
  13. Which region of the phospholipid is hydrophilic, the head or the tail?
    the head
  14. Which region of the phospholipid in hydrophobic, the head or the tail?
    the tail
  15. The fluidity of cell membranes is due to this characteristic of phospholipids.
    unsaturated fatty acids in the tail
  16. The unsaturated fatty acid chains in the tails of phospholipids keep them from:
    packing together too tightly
  17. Do phospholipids switch places laterally or flip-flop more frequently?
    switch places laterally
  18. How often do laterally movements take place in the cell membrane?
    thousands of times per second (107)
  19. When a phospholipid "flip-flops," where does it go?
    to the other side of the membrane
  20. Membrane proteins found only on the outside of the membrane are known as:
    peripheral proteins
  21. Membrane proteins that span the entire width of the membrane are known as:
    integral proteins
  22. This molecule is found in the membrane and aids in membrane fluidity.
    cholesterol
  23. What are the six classes of membrane proteins?
    • Anchoring
    • Recognition
    • Enzymes
    • Receptor
    • Carrier
    • Channel
  24. Which class of proteins act as stabilizers?
    anchoring proteins
  25. True or False: Anchoring proteins can attach to both the inside and outside of structures.
    True
  26. Which class of proteins function as identifiers, function as part of the immune system, and deal with "self vs. non-self?"
    recognitions proteins
  27. Which class of proteins catalyze reactions and lower the energy of activation?
    enzymes
  28. This class of proteins act as binding sites for things like enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters.
    receptor proteins
  29. These proteins are able to transport things into or out of your cells.
    carrier proteins
  30. These proteins create a pore in the membrane through which specific molecules can travel.
    channel proteins
  31. Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids make up what cellular component?
    glycocalyx
  32. The glycocalyx is a:
    sticky sugar coat around the cell
  33. List the functions of glycocalyx.
    • Lubrication and protection
    • Anchoring and locomotion
    • Specificity in binding
    • Recognition
  34. If a cell membrane was freely permeable, what types of things could cross it?
    everything
  35. The selective permeability of cell membranes allow us to maintain what?
    concentration gradients
  36. Does sodium have a higher or lower concentration outside the cell?
    higher concentration
  37. Does potassium have a higher or lower concentration inside the cell?
    higher concentration
  38. Which molecule, sodium or potassium, has the lower concentration outside the cell?
    potassium
  39. Which molecule, sodium or potassium, has a higher concentration outside the cell?
    sodium
  40. What types of particles cannot cross the cell membrane?
    • charged particles
    • non-lipid solubles
  41. True or False: Non-lipid solubles without a specific membrane channel can still enter the cell.
    False
  42. True or False: Lipid solubles can diffuse directly through the membrane and can go in and out at will.
    True
  43. What is diffusion?
    the movement of solutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  44. What is the concentration gradient?
    the difference in the amount (concentration) of a solute
  45. Is moving from high concentration to low concentration going up or down the gradient?
    down the gradient
  46. Transport that does not require an energy input is known as:
    passive transport
  47. What three factors also affect diffusion?
    • temperature
    • size of the molecule
    • viscosity of solution
  48. As temperature increases, the rate of diffusion gets:
    faster
  49. Which molecule will diffuse faster, a large one or a small one?
    the small one
  50. The number of particles in a solution is it's:
    viscosity
  51. The higher the viscosity the ______ the diffusion.
    slower
  52. Once the solute concentration is the same, diffusion stops because ________ has been reached.
    equilibrium
  53. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is known as:
    osmosis
  54. Water will move from an area of _____ solute concentration towards an area of ______ solute concentration.
    lower, higher
  55. The rate of osmosis is regulated by:
    osmotic pressure
  56. The osmotic pressure is the amount of force needed to:
    prevent osmosis
  57. The higher the pressure, the _______ osmosis.
    less
  58. A hypertonic solution has a ______ concentration of solutes than the cell.
    higher
  59. A solution with a lower concentration of solutes than the cells is a:
    hypotonic solution
  60. Which type of solution has an equal concentration of solutes with the cells in it?
    isotonic
  61. In which type of solution will be see cell crenation (shrivelling)?
    hypertonic
  62. In which type of solution will we see cell lysis?
    hypotonic
  63. Which type of solution will demonstrate no net water movement?
    isotonic
  64. What type of solution is ideal for plants?
    hypotonic
  65. When an isotonic solution is introduced to plants what happens?
    they become limp
  66. When a hypertonic solution is introduced to a plant, water leaves the cell causing:
    plasmolysis
  67. What is filtration?
    moving liquid across a porous membrane
  68. The force that pushes a liquid across the filtration membrane is the:
    filtration pressure
  69. What attribute determines whether or not a molecule gets filtered or not?
    size of the molecule
  70. What type of transport occurs when a molecule utilizes a transport protein to move things across the membrane?
    carrier-mediated transport
  71. What type of molecules require help from a carrier protein?
    • larger molecules
    • charged particles
  72. When a protein changes form to allow a molecule to enter the cell, you have what type of diffusion?
    facilitated diffusion
  73. True or False: Facilitated diffusion moves down the concentration gradient and thus does not require energy.
    True
  74. Moving two solutes across the cell membrane in the same direction is known as:
    symport
  75. Moving two solutes across the membrane in opposite directions is known as:
    antiport
  76. Active transport requires a source of energy because it moves _____ the concentration gradient.
    against
  77. Membrane transport that requires an energy source is called:
    active transport
  78. The sodium-potassium pump is an example of what type of transport?
    active transport
  79. Transport that utilizes a membrane bound structure to carry something is known as:
    vesicle transport
  80. The process of bringing something inside a cell is known as:
    endocytosis
  81. The process of bringing solids into the cell, or cell eating, is known as:
    phagocytosis
  82. Cell drinking is known as:
    pinocytosis
  83. The two types of endocytosis discussed are:
    phagocytosis and pinocytosis
  84. The process of taking things out of the cell is known as:
    exocytosis
  85. Secretory vesicles are part of exocytosis or endocytosis?
    exocytosis
  86. A red blood cell prefers what type of solution?
    isotonic
  87. What type of solution will cause cell lysis in red blood cells?
    hypotonic
  88. Explain how a hypotonic solution causes cell lysis.
    Water will flow into the cell due to it's higher concentration of solutes and cause it to expand an pop like a balloon.
  89. A hypertonic (salt water) solution will cause what phenomenon in red blood cells.
    crenation leading to dehydration
  90. When comparing molar concentration of solutes on either side of a membrane do you add or multiply the individual concentrations?
    add them

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